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Heart Failure (HF) is a global pandemic affecting an estimated 26 million people worldwide and resulting in millions of hospitalizations globally. Although the outcomes for ambulatory HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction have improved with the discovery of multiple evidence-based drug and device therapies, worsening HF patients continue to experience unacceptably high mortality and readmission rates that have not changed in the last two decades. It is important to note that half of patients with worsening HF have preserved ejection fraction and have similarly high event-rates for whom there are no evidence-based therapies to improve outcomes. HF registries have significantly improved our understanding of this clinical entity and remain an important source of data shaping both public policy and research efforts. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to re-evaluate what is known, identify what is not known, and develop a roadmap for the improving outcomes through better understanding of the disease process in order to identify unique targets for different HF populations. It is essential to “find the disease” within HF. The typical example is Diabetes, where worsening HF develops on a different myocardial substrate characterized by specific myocardial metabolic, functional, neurohormonal and hemodynamic changes, may respond differently to certain HF therapies and shows unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates compared to HF without DM. One-size fits all approach is doubtful to lead to a substantial improvement in outcomes. The goals of this meeting will be to discuss and summarize current status of HF and to develop a roadmap for clinical practice and research. Bergamo has a longstanding tradition in cardiovascular research and in the new Hospital Papa Giovanni XXIII a research Center devoted to HF has been established. For these reasons Bergamo represents a perfect location for an update on HF programs. 

Antonello Gavazzi, Mihai Gheorghiade, Michele Senni Course Meeting Directors

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Il premio Nobel Louis Ignarro



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