Social & Clinical Implications

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21/12/2020 Articles
The COVID‐19 pandemic masks the way people perceive faces

NATURE

Authors
Erez Freud, Andreja Stajduhar, R. Shayna Rosenbaum, Galia Avidan, Tzvi Ganel

Abstract
The unprecedented efforts to minimize the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic introduce a new arena for human face recognition in which faces are partially occluded with masks. Here, we tested the extent to which face masks change the way faces are perceived. To this end, we evaluated face processing abilities for masked and unmasked faces in a large online sample of adult observers (n = 496) using an adapted version of the Cambridge Face Memory Test, a validated measure of face perception abilities in humans. As expected, a substantial decrease in performance was found for masked faces. Importantly, the inclusion of masks also led to a qualitative change in the way masked faces are perceived. In particular, holistic processing, the hallmark of face perception, was disrupted for faces with masks, as suggested by a reduced inversion effect. Similar changes were found whether masks were included during the study or the test phases of the experiment. Together, we provide novel evidence for quantitative and qualitative alterations in the processing of masked faces that could have significant effects on daily activities and social interactions.

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17/12/2020 Articles
The impacts of COVID‐19, meteorology, and emission control policies on...

The impacts of COVID‐19, meteorology, and emission control policies on ­PM2.5 drops in Northeast Asia

NATURE

Authors
Yoon-Hee Kang, Seunghee You, Minah Bae, Eunhye Kim, Kyuwon Son, Changhan Bae, Yoonha Kim, Byeong-Uk Kim, Hyun Cheol Kim, Soontae Kim

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09/12/2020 Editorial
Christmas, wine and Covid-19

NATURE

Authors
Shaun R. McCann

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08/12/2020 Articles
The mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with and w...

The mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with and without depressive, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive disorders: a longitudinal study of three Dutch case-control cohorts

THE LANCET

Authors
Kuan-Yu Pan, Almar A L Kok, Merijn Eikelenboom, Melany Horsfall, Frederike Jörg, Rob A Luteijn, Didi Rhebergen, Patricia van Oppen, Erik J Giltay, Brenda W J H Penninx

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04/12/2020 Original Investigation
Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalization and Mortali...

Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalization and Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York City

JAMA

Authors
Gbenga Ogedegbe, MD, MPH; Joseph Ravenell, MD; Samrachana Adhikari, PhD; Mark Butler, PhD; Tiffany Cook, MA; Fritz Francois, MD; Eduardo Iturrate, MD; Girardin Jean-Louis, PhD; Simon A. Jones, PhD; Deborah Onakomaiya, MPH; Christopher M. Petrilli, MD; Claudia Pulgarin, MS; Seann Regan, MA; Harmony Reynolds, MD; Azizi Seixas, PhD; Frank Michael Volpicelli, MD; Leora Idit Horwitz,

Abstract
Importance Black and Hispanic populations have higher rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and mortality than White populations but lower in-hospital case-fatality rates. The extent to which neighborhood characteristics and comorbidity explain these disparities is unclear. Outcomes in Asian American populations have not been explored.

Objective To compare COVID-19 outcomes based on race and ethnicity and assess the association of any disparities with comorbidity and neighborhood characteristics.

Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective cohort study was conducted within the New York University Langone Health system, which includes over 260 outpatient practices and 4 acute care hospitals. All patients within the system’s integrated health record who were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between March 1, 2020, and April 8, 2020, were identified and followed up through May 13, 2020. Data were analyzed in June 2020. Among 11 547 patients tested, outcomes were compared by race and ethnicity and examined against differences by age, sex, body mass index, comorbidity, insurance type, and neighborhood socioeconomic status.

Exposures Race and ethnicity categorized using self-reported electronic health record data (ie, non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Asian, and multiracial/other patients).

Main Outcomes and Measures The likelihood of receiving a positive test, hospitalization, and critical illness (defined as a composite of care in the intensive care unit, use of mechanical ventilation, discharge to hospice, or death).

Results Among 9722 patients (mean [SD] age, 50.7 [17.5] years; 58.8% women), 4843 (49.8%) were positive for COVID-19; 2623 (54.2%) of those were admitted for hospitalization (1047 [39.9%] White, 375 [14.3%] Black, 715 [27.3%] Hispanic, 180 [6.9%] Asian, 207 [7.9%] multiracial/other). In fully adjusted models, Black patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and Hispanic patients (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7) were more likely than White patients to test positive. Among those who tested positive, odds of hospitalization were similar among White, Hispanic, and Black patients, but higher among Asian (OR, 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) and multiracial patients (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9) compared with White patients. Among those hospitalized, Black patients were less likely than White patients to have severe illness (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and to die or be discharged to hospice (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9).

Conclusions and Relevance In this cohort study of patients in a large health system in New York City, Black and Hispanic patients were more likely, and Asian patients less likely, than White patients to test positive; once hospitalized, Black patients were less likely than White patients to have critical illness or die after adjustment for comorbidity and neighborhood characteristics. This supports the assertion that existing structural determinants pervasive in Black and Hispanic communities may explain the disproportionately higher out-of-hospital deaths due to COVID-19 infections in these populations.

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03/12/2020 Comment
Abraar Karan: Pandemics are stopped by people—here’s what we, as indiv...

Abraar Karan: Pandemics are stopped by people—here’s what we, as individuals, can still do

THE BMJ

Authors
Abraar Karan

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01/12/2020 Articles
Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID‐19 can be clustered in three ...

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID‐19 can be clustered in three distinct symptom categories

NATURE

Authors
Fatemeh Sadat Mirfazeli, Atiye Sarabi-Jamab, Amin Jahanbakhshi, Alireza Kordi, Parisa Javadnia, Seyed Vahid Shariat, Oldooz Aloosh, Mostafa Almasi-Dooghaee, Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz

Abstract
Several studies have reported clinical manifestations of the new coronavirus disease. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19. We reviewed the medical records of 201 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (52 outpatients and 149 inpatients) that were treated in a large referral center in Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to May 2020. We used clustering approach to categorize clinical symptoms. One hundred and fifty-one patients showed at least one neuropsychiatric symptom. Limb force reductions, headache followed by anosmia, hypogeusia were among the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that neuropsychiatric symptoms group together in three distinct groups: anosmia and hypogeusia; dizziness, headache, and limb force reduction; photophobia, mental state change, hallucination, vision and speech problem, seizure, stroke, and balance disturbance. Three non-neuropsychiatric cluster of symptoms included diarrhea and nausea; cough and dyspnea; and fever and weakness. Neuropsychiatric presentations are very prevalent and heterogeneous in patients with coronavirus 2 infection and these heterogeneous presentations may be originating from different underlying mechanisms. Anosmia and hypogeusia seem to be distinct from more general constitutional-like and more specific neuropsychiatric symptoms. Skeletal muscular manifestations might be a constitutional or a neuropsychiatric symptom.

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30/11/2020 Letter
Unemployment Insurance, Health-Related Social Needs, Health Care Acces...

Unemployment Insurance, Health-Related Social Needs, Health Care Access, and Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Seth A. Berkowitz, Sanjay Basu

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30/11/2020 Communication
The COVID-19 pandemic and impact on breast cancer diagnoses: what happ...

The COVID-19 pandemic and impact on breast cancer diagnoses: what happened in England in the first half of 2020

BJC (BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER)

Authors
Toral Gathani, Gill Clayton, Emma MacInnes, Kieran Horgan

Abstract
Delays in cancer diagnosis and treatment due to the COVID-19 pandemic is a widespread source of concern, but the scale of the challenge for different tumour sites is not known. Routinely collected NHS England Cancer Waiting Time data were analysed to compare activity for breast cancer in the first 6 months of 2020 compared to the same time period in 2019. The number of referrals for suspected breast cancer was 28% lower (N = 231,765 versus N = 322,994), and the number of patients who received their first treatment for a breast cancer diagnosis was 16% lower (N = 19,965 versus N = 23,881). These data suggest that the number of breast cancers diagnosed during the first half of 2020 is not as low as initially feared, and a substantial proportion of the shortfall can be explained by the suspension of routine screening in March 2020. Further work is needed to examine in detail the impact of measures to manage the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer outcomes.

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26/11/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Trustworthiness before Trust — Covid-19 Vaccine Trials and the Black C...

Trustworthiness before Trust — Covid-19 Vaccine Trials and the Black Community

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Rueben C. Warren, Lachlan Forrow, David Augustin Hodge, Robert D. Truog

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21/11/2020 News
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Monoclonal Antibodies fo...

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of COVID-19

US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

Authors
Chanapa Tantibanchachai

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20/11/2020 Institutional Recommendations
WHO recommends against the use of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients

WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION)

Authors
WHO (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION)

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20/11/2020 Articles
Medicare Monoclonal Antibody COVID-19 Infusion Program Instruction

CMS.GOV

Authors
U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service

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20/11/2020 Press Release
Does solar ultraviolet radiation play a role in COVID-19 infection and...

Does solar ultraviolet radiation play a role in COVID-19 infection and deaths? An environmental ecological study in Italy

SCIENCE DIRECT

Authors
Giancarlo Isaia, Henri Diémoz, Francesco MalutacIlias, Ilias Fountoulakis, Daniela Ceccon, Alcide di Sarra, Stefania Facta, Francesca Fedele, Giuseppe Lorenzetto, Anna Maria Siani, Gianluca Isaia

Abstract
A significantly stronger impact in mortality and morbidity by COVID-19 has been observed in the northern Italian regions compared to the southern ones. The reasons of this geographical pattern might involve several concurrent factors. The main objective of this work is to investigate whether any correlations exist between the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the different Italian regions and the amount of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface. To this purpose, in this environmental ecological study a mixed-effect exponential regression was built to explain the incidence of COVID-19 based on the environmental conditions, and demographic and pathophysiologic factors. Observations and estimates of the cumulative solar UV exposure have been included to quantify the amount of radiation available e.g., for pre-vitamin D3 synthesis or SARS-CoV-2 inactivation by sunlight. The analysis shows a significant correlation (p-value <5 × 10−2) between the response variables (death percentage, incidence of infections and positive tests) and biologically effective solar UV radiation, residents in nursing homes per inhabitant (NHR), air temperature, death percentage due to the most frequent comorbidities. Among all factors, the amount of solar UV radiation is the variable contributing the most to the observed correlation, explaining up to 83.2% of the variance of the COVID-19 affected cases per population. While the statistical outcomes of the study do not directly entail a specific cause-effect relationship, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that solar UV radiation impacted on the development of the infection and on its complications, e.g. through the effect of vitamin D on the immune system or virus inactivation by sunlight. The analytical framework used in this study, based on commonly available data, can be easily replicated in other countries and geographical domains to identify possible correlations between exposure to solar UV radiation and the spread of the pandemic.

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19/11/2020 News
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Drug Combination for Tre...

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Drug Combination for Treatment of COVID-19

US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

Authors
Chanapa Tantibanchachai

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16/11/2020 Comment
Counting stillbirths and COVID 19—there has never been a more urgent t...

Counting stillbirths and COVID 19—there has never been a more urgent time

THE LANCET

Authors
Caroline S E Homer, Susannah Hopkins Leisher, Neelam Aggarwal, Joseph Akuze, Delly Babona, Hannah Blencowe, John Bolgna, Richard Chawana, Aliki Christou, Miranda Davies-Tuck, Rakhi Dandona, Sanne Gordijn, Adrienne Gordon, Rafat Jan, Fleurisca Korteweg, Salome Maswime, Margaret M Murphy, Paula Quigley, Claire Storey, Lisa M Vallely, Peter Waiswa, Clare Whitehead, Jennifer Zeitlin, Vicki Flenady

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16/11/2020 News
EMA starts rolling review of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine by Moderna Biotech ...

EMA starts rolling review of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine by Moderna Biotech Spain, S.L.

EUROPEAN MEDICINE AGENCY

Authors
EMA Press office

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13/11/2020 Correspondence
Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19: a tale of populism and obscurantism

THE LANCET

Authors
Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Mathieu E Rebeaud, Anthony Guihur, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Thibault Fiolet

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13/11/2020 Editorial
Covid-19: politicisation, “corruption,” and suppression of science

THE BMJ

Authors
Kamran Abbasi

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11/11/2020 News
INVESTIGATION INTO COVID ORIGIN BEGINS BUT FACES CHALLENGES

NATURE

Authors
Smriti Mallapaty

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09/11/2020 Articles
Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: ...

Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: retrospective cohort studies of 62354 COVID-19 cases in the USA

THE LANCET

Authors
Maxime Taquet, Sierra Luciano, John R Geddes, Paul J Harrison

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06/11/2020 Original Investigation
US Clinicians’ Experiences and Perspectives on Resource Limitation and...

US Clinicians’ Experiences and Perspectives on Resource Limitation and Patient Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Catherine R. Butler, Susan P. Y. Wong, Aaron G. Wightman, Ann M. O’Hare

Abstract
Importance Little is known about how US clinicians have responded to resource limitation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Objective To describe the perspectives and experiences of clinicians involved in institutional planning for resource limitation and/or patient care during the pandemic.

Design, Setting, and Participants This qualitative study used inductive thematic analysis of semistructured interviews conducted in April and May 2020 with a national group of clinicians (eg, intensivists, nephrologists, nurses) involved in institutional planning and/or clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic across the United States.

Main Outcomes and Measures Emergent themes describing clinicians’ experience providing care in settings of resource limitation.

Results The 61 participants (mean [SD] age, 46 [11] years; 38 [63%] women) included in this study were practicing in 15 US states and were more heavily sampled from areas with the highest rates of COVID-19 infection at the time of interviews (ie, Seattle, New York City, New Orleans). Most participants were White individuals (39 [65%]), were attending physicians (45 [75%]), and were practicing in large academic centers (≥300 beds, 51 [85%]; academic centers, 46 [77%]). Three overlapping and interrelated themes emerged from qualitative analysis, as follows: (1) planning for crisis capacity, (2) adapting to resource limitation, and (3) multiple unprecedented barriers to care delivery. Clinician leaders worked within their institutions to plan a systematic approach for fair allocation of limited resources in crisis settings so that frontline clinicians would not have to make rationing decisions at the bedside. However, even before a declaration of crisis capacity, clinicians encountered varied and sometimes unanticipated forms of resource limitation that could compromise care, require that they make difficult allocation decisions, and contribute to moral distress. Furthermore, unprecedented challenges to caring for patients during the pandemic, including the need to limit in-person interactions, the rapid pace of change, and the dearth of scientific evidence, added to the challenges of caring for patients and communicating with families.

Conclusions and Relevance The findings of this qualitative study highlighted the complexity of providing high-quality care for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expanding the scope of institutional planning to address resource limitation challenges that can arise long before declarations of crisis capacity may help to support frontline clinicians, promote equity, and optimize care as the pandemic evolves.

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05/11/2020 Editorial
Growing up in the shadow of COVID-19

THE LANCET

Authors
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

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02/11/2020 Editorial
Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic—Unique Opportunities for Unifying, ...

Lessons from the COVID-19 Pandemic—Unique Opportunities for Unifying, Revamping and Reshaping Epidemic Preparedness of Europe’s Public Health Systems

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIUOS DISEASES

Authors
Giuseppe Ippolito, Francesco Nicola Lauria, Franco Locatelli, Nicola Magrini, Chiara Montaldo, Raffaella Sadun, Markus Maeurer, Gino Strada, Francesco Vairo, Salvatore Curiale, Antoine Lafont, Antonino di Caro, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Rainer Meilicke, Eskild Petersen, Alimuddin Zumla, Michel Pletschette

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02/11/2020 Articles
Partisan differences in physical distancing are linked to health outco...

Partisan differences in physical distancing are linked to health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

NATURE

Authors
Anton Gollwitzer, Cameron Martel, William J. Brady, Philip Pärnamets, Isaac G. Freedman, Eric D. Knowles, Jay J. Van Bavel

Abstract
Numerous polls suggest that COVID-19 is a profoundly partisan issue in the United States. Using the geotracking data of 15 million smartphones per day, we found that US counties that voted for Donald Trump (Republican) over Hillary Clinton (Democrat) in the 2016 presidential election exhibited 14% less physical distancing between March and May 2020. Partisanship was more strongly associated with physical distancing than numerous other factors, including counties’ COVID-19 cases, population density, median income, and racial and age demographics. Contrary to our predictions, the observed partisan gap strengthened over time and remained when stay-at-home orders were active. Additionally, county-level consumption of conservative media (Fox News) was related to reduced physical distancing. Finally, the observed partisan differences in distancing were associated with subsequently higher COVID-19 infection and fatality growth rates in pro-Trump counties. Taken together, these data suggest that US citizens’ responses to COVID-19 are subject to a deep—and consequential—partisan divide.

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01/11/2020 Editorial
Contact tracing: digital health on the frontline

THE LANCET

Authors
The Lancet Digital Health

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29/10/2020 Editorial
To Treat or Not to Treat—Balancing Benefits and Risks of Treatment Del...

To Treat or Not to Treat—Balancing Benefits and Risks of Treatment Delay Among Patients With Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Brian I. Rini

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28/10/2020 Articles
Evaluating the effect of demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, a...

Evaluating the effect of demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, and risk aversion on mobility during the COVID-19 epidemic in France under lockdown: a population-based study

THE LANCET

Authors
Giulia Pullano, Eugenio Valdano, Nicola Scarpa, Stefania Rubrichi, Vittoria Colizza

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26/10/2020 Editorial
Return to Play for Athletes After Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection— ...

Return to Play for Athletes After Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection— Making High-Stakes Recommendations as Data Evolve

JAMA

Authors
James E. Udelson, Michael A. Curtis, Ethan J. Rowin

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26/10/2020 News
Neanderthal DNA raises risk of severe COVID

NATURE

Authors
YANG LUO

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23/10/2020 Original Investigation
Factors Associated With Mental Health Disorders Among University Stude...

Factors Associated With Mental Health Disorders Among University Students in France Confined During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Marielle Wathelet, Stéphane Duhem, Guillaume Vaiva, Thierry Baubet, Enguerrand Habran, Emilie Veerapa, Christophe Debien, Sylvie Molenda, Mathilde Horn, Pierre Grandgenèvre, Charles-Edouard Notredame, Fabien D’Hondt

Abstract
Importance The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and quarantine measures have raised concerns regarding their psychological effects on populations. Among the general population, university students appear to be particularly susceptible to experiencing mental health problems.

Objectives To measure the prevalence of self-reported mental health symptoms, to identify associated factors, and to assess care seeking among university students who experienced the COVID-19 quarantine in France.

Design, Setting, and Participants This survey study collected data from April 17 to May 4, 2020, from 69 054 students living in France during the COVID-19 quarantine. All French universities were asked to send an email to their students asking them to complete an online questionnaire. The targeted population was approximately 1 600 000 students.

Exposure Living in France during the COVID-19 quarantine.

Main Outcomes and Measures The rates of self-reported suicidal thoughts, severe distress, stress, anxiety, and depression were assessed using the 22-item Impact of Events Scale–Revised, the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, the 20-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State subscale), and the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, precariousness indicators (ie, loss of income or poor quality housing), health-related data, information on the social environment, and media consumption. Data pertaining to care seeking were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors.

Results A total of 69 054 students completed the survey (response rate, 4.3%). The median (interquartile range) age was 20 (18-22) years. The sample was mainly composed of women (50 251 [72.8%]) and first-year students (32 424 [47.0%]). The prevalence of suicidal thoughts, severe distress, high level of perceived stress, severe depression, and high level of anxiety were 11.4% (7891 students), 22.4% (15 463 students), 24.7% (17 093 students), 16.1% (11 133 students), and 27.5% (18 970 students), respectively, with 29 564 students (42.8%) reporting at least 1 outcome, among whom 3675 (12.4%) reported seeing a health professional. Among risk factors identified, reporting at least 1 mental health outcome was associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 2.02-2.19; P < .001) or nonbinary gender (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 2.99-4.27; P < .001), precariousness (loss of income: OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.22-1.33; P < .001; low-quality housing: OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.06-2.57; P < .001), history of psychiatric follow-up (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 3.09-3.48; P < .001), symptoms compatible with COVID-19 (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.49-1.61; P < .001), social isolation (weak sense of integration: OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 3.35-3.92; P < .001; low quality of social relations: OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 2.49-2.75; P < .001), and low quality of the information received (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.49-1.64; P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance The results of this survey study suggest a high prevalence of mental health issues among students who experienced quarantine, underlining the need to reinforce prevention, surveillance, and access to care.

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21/10/2020 News
Covid-19: Suicidal thoughts increased in young adults during lockdown,...

Covid-19: Suicidal thoughts increased in young adults during lockdown, UK study finds

THE BMJ

Authors
Jacqui Wise

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20/10/2020 Editorial
Covid-19’s known unknowns

THE BMJ

Authors
George Davey Smith, Michael Blastland, Marcus Munafò

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19/10/2020 Articles
A quantitative and qualitative study on the neuropsychiatric sequelae ...

A quantitative and qualitative study on the neuropsychiatric sequelae of acutely ill COVID-19 inpatients in isolation facilities

NATURE

Authors
Fengyi Hao, Wilson Tam, Xiaoyu Hu, Wanqiu Tan, Li Jiang, Xiaojiang Jiang, Ling Zhang, Xinling Zhao, Yiran Zou, Yirong Hu, Xi Luo, Roger S. McIntyre, Travis Quek, Bach Xuan Tran, Zhisong Zhang, Hai Quang Pham, Cyrus S. H. Ho, Roger C.M. Ho

Abstract
This study examined the neuropsychiatric sequelae of acutely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who received treatment in hospital isolation wards during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten COVID-19 patients who received treatment in various hospitals in Chongqing, China; 10 age- and gender-matched psychiatric patients; and 10 healthy control participants residing in the same city were recruited. All participants completed a survey that collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days and psychological parameters. Face-to-face interviews with COVID-19 patients were also performed using semi-structured questions. Among the COVID-19 patients, 40% had abnormal findings on the chest computed topography scan, 20% had dysosmia, 10% had dysgeusia, and 80% had repeated positivity on COVID-19 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. COVID-19 and psychiatric patients were significantly more worried about their health than healthy controls (p = 0.019). A greater proportion of COVID-19 patients experienced impulsivity (p = 0.016) and insomnia (p = 0.039) than psychiatric patients and healthy controls. COVID-19 patients reported a higher psychological impact of the outbreak than psychiatric patients and healthy controls, with half of them having clinically significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. COVID-19 and psychiatric patients had higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress than healthy controls. Three themes emerged from the interviews with COVID-19 patients: (i) The emotions experienced by patients after COVID-19 infection (i.e., shock, fear, despair, hope, and boredom); (ii) the external factors that affected patients’ mood (i.e., discrimination, medical expenses, care by healthcare workers); and (iii) coping and self-help behavior (i.e., distraction, problem-solving and online support). The future direction in COVID-19 management involves the development of a holistic inpatient service to promote immune and psychological resilience.

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16/10/2020 Communication
Suicide Prevention in the COVID-19 Era Transforming Threat Into Opport...

Suicide Prevention in the COVID-19 Era Transforming Threat Into Opportunity

JAMA

Authors
Christine Moutier

Abstract
Importance Suicide, a leading cause of death with devastating emotional and societal costs, is a generally preventable cause of death and a critical global public health issue. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase the risk of population suicide through its effects on a number of well-established suicide risk factors.

Observations Prior to the pandemic, many countries were engaging in suicide prevention strategies, and although the overall global burden of suicide deaths has increased, some national efforts were beginning to see positive results. Additionally, the gap between mental health needs and services has been increasing in many nations. With the added physical and mental health, social, and economic burdens imposed by the pandemic, many populations worldwide may experience increased suicide risk. Data and recent events during the first 6 months of the pandemic reveal specific effects on suicide risk. However, increases in suicide rates are not a foregone conclusion even with the negative effects of the pandemic. In fact, emerging suicide data from several countries show no evidence of an increase in suicide during the pandemic thus far. There are actionable steps that policy makers, health care leaders, and organizational leaders can take to mitigate suicide risk during and after the pandemic.

Conclusions and Relevance COVID-19 presents a new and urgent opportunity to focus political will, federal investments, and global community on the vital imperative of suicide prevention. Suicide prevention in the COVID-19 era requires addressing not only pandemic-specific suicide risk factors, but also prepandemic risk factors. This Special Communication provides prioritized, evidence-based strategies for clinicians and health care delivery systems, along with national and local policy and educational initiatives tailored to the COVID-19 environment. If implemented to scale, these interventions could significantly mitigate the pandemic’s negative effects on suicide risk.

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14/10/2020 Viewpoint
Is It Lawful and Ethical to Prioritize Racial Minorities for COVID-19 ...

Is It Lawful and Ethical to Prioritize Racial Minorities for COVID-19 Vaccines?

JAMA

Authors
Harald Schmidt, Lawrence O. Gostin, Michelle A. Williams

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12/10/2020 Viewpoint
The COVID-19 Pandemic and the $16 Trillion Virus

JAMA

Authors
David M. Cutler, Lawrence H. Summers

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12/10/2020 Viewpoint
Mental Health Disorders Related to COVID-19–Related Deaths

JAMA

Authors
Naomi M. Simon, Glenn N. Saxe, Charles R. Marmar

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12/10/2020 Viewpoint
Excess Deaths From COVID-19, Community Bereavement, and Restorative Ju...

Excess Deaths From COVID-19, Community Bereavement, and Restorative Justice for Communities of Color

JAMA

Authors
Lisa A. Cooper, MD, David R. Williams

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06/10/2020 Articles
The COVID-19 social media infodemic

NATURE

Authors
Matteo Cinelli, Walter Quattrociocchi, Alessandro Galeazzi, Carlo Michele Valensise, Emanuele Brugnoli, Ana Lucia Schmidt, Paola Zola, Fabiana Zollo, Antonio Scala

Abstract
We address the diffusion of information about the COVID-19 with a massive data analysis on Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Reddit and Gab. We analyze engagement and interest in the COVID-19 topic and provide a differential assessment on the evolution of the discourse on a global scale for each platform and their users. We fit information spreading with epidemic models characterizing the basic reproduction number R0 for each social media platform. Moreover, we identify information spreading from questionable sources, finding different volumes of misinformation in each platform. However, information from both reliable and questionable sources do not present different spreading patterns. Finally, we provide platform-dependent numerical estimates of rumors’ amplification.

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06/10/2020 Articles
Spatial and temporal variations of air pollution over 41 cities of Ind...

Spatial and temporal variations of air pollution over 41 cities of India during the COVID-19 lockdown period

NATURE

Authors
Krishna Prasad Vadrevu, Aditya Eaturu, Sumalika Biswas, Kristofer Lasko, Saroj Sahu, J. K. Garg, Chris Justice

Abstract
In this study, we characterize the impacts of COVID-19 on air pollution using NO2 and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from TROPOMI and MODIS satellite datasets for 41 cities in India. Specifically, our results suggested a 13% NO2 reduction during the lockdown (March 25–May 3rd, 2020) compared to the pre-lockdown (January 1st–March 24th, 2020) period. Also, a 19% reduction in NO2 was observed during the 2020-lockdown as compared to the same period during 2019. The top cities where NO2 reduction occurred were New Delhi (61.74%), Delhi (60.37%), Bangalore (48.25%), Ahmedabad (46.20%), Nagpur (46.13%), Gandhinagar (45.64) and Mumbai (43.08%) with less reduction in coastal cities. The temporal analysis revealed a progressive decrease in NO2 for all seven cities during the 2020 lockdown period. Results also suggested spatial differences, i.e., as the distance from the city center increased, the NO2 levels decreased exponentially. In contrast, to the decreased NO2 observed for most of the cities, we observed an increase in NO2 for cities in Northeast India during the 2020 lockdown period and attribute it to vegetation fires. The NO2 temporal patterns matched the AOD signal; however, the correlations were poor. Overall, our results highlight COVID-19 impacts on NO2, and the results can inform pollution mitigation efforts across different cities of India.

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06/10/2020 Editorial
Political interference in public health science during covid-19

THE BMJ

Authors
Gregg Gonsalves, Gavin Yamey

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05/10/2020 Articles
Prevalence, management, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections in older...

Prevalence, management, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections in older people and those with dementia in mental health wards in London, UK: a retrospective observational study

THE LANCET

Authors
Gill Livingston, Hossein Rostamipour, Paul Gallagher, Chris Kalafatis, Abhishek Shastri, Lauren Huzzey, Kathy Liu, Andrew Sommerlad, Louise Marsto

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05/10/2020 Articles
COVID-19 lockdown and its latency in Northern Italy: seismic evidence ...

COVID-19 lockdown and its latency in Northern Italy: seismic evidence and socio-economic interpretation

NATURE

Authors
Davide Piccinini, Carlo Giunchi, Marco Olivieri, Federico Frattini, Matteo Di Giovanni, Giorgio Prodi, Claudio Chiarabba

Abstract
The Italian Government has decreed a series of progressive restrictions to delay the COVID-19 pandemic diffusion in Italy since March 10, 2020, including limitation in individual mobility and the closure of social, cultural, economic and industrial activities. Here we show the lockdown effect in Northern Italy, the COVID-19 most affected area, as revealed by noise variation at seismic stations. The reaction to lockdown was slow and not homogeneous with spots of negligible noise reduction, especially in the first week. A fresh interpretation of seismic noise variations in terms of socio-economic indicators sheds new light on the lockdown efficacy pointing to the causes of such delay: the noise reduction is significant where non strategic activities prevails, while it is small or negligible where dense population and strategic activities are present. These results are crucial for the a posteriori interpretation of the pandemic diffusion and the efficacy of differently targeted political actions.

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05/10/2020 Correspondence
COVID-19: the deadly threat of misinformation

THE LANCET

Authors
Jane Galvão

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02/10/2020 Articles
COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings due to fir...

COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings due to first-episode mental disorders in Wuhan, China: clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and our experiences

NATURE

Authors
Qin Xie, Fang Fan, Xue-Peng Fan, Xiao-Jiang Wang, Ming-Jian Chen, Bao-Liang Zhong, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu

Abstract
Data are scarce regarding the comorbid mental disorders and their management among COVID-19 patients. This study described the clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients treated in psychiatric inpatient settings due to comorbid first-onset mental disorders in Wuhan, China. This electronic medical records-based study included 25 COVID-19 patients with first-onset mental disorders and 55 patients with first-onset mental disorders without COVID-19 (control group). Data collected included ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorders, psychiatric and respiratory symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Adjustment disorder (n = 11, 44.0%) and acute and transient psychotic disorders, with associated acute stress (n = 6, 24.0%) were main clinical diagnoses in the COVID-19 group while serious mental illnesses (i.e., schizophrenia, 24.5%) and alcohol use disorders (10.9%) were overrepresented in the control group. On admission, the most common psychiatric symptom in COVID-19 patients was insomnia symptoms (n = 18, 72.0%), followed by aggressive behaviors (n = 16, 64.0%), delusion (n = 10, 40.0%), and severe anxiety (n = 9, 36.0%). In addition to respiratory treatments, 76.0% COVID-19 patients received antipsychotics, 40.0% sedative-hypnotics, and 24.0% mood stabilizers. At the end of inpatient treatment, 4 (16.0%) COVID-19 patients were transferred to other hospitals to continue respiratory treatment after their psychiatric symptoms were controlled while the remaining 21 (84.0%) all recovered. Compared to the control group, COVID-19 group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (21.2 vs. 37.4 days, P < 0.001). Adjustment disorder and acute and transient psychotic disorders are the main clinical diagnoses of COVID-19 patients managed in psychiatric inpatient settings. The short-term prognosis of these patients is good after conventional psychotropic treatment.

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01/10/2020 Investigation
Risk of COVID-19 During Air Travel

JAMA

Authors
Rui Pombal, Ian Hosegood, David Powell

Read More »

30/09/2020 Editorial
The FDA and the Importance of Trust

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Lindsey R. Baden, Caren G. Solomon, Michael F. Greene, Ralph B. D’Agostino, David Harrington

Read More »

28/09/2020 Comment
The pandemic paused the US school-to-prison pipeline: potential lesson...

The pandemic paused the US school-to-prison pipeline: potential lessons learned

THE LANCET

Authors
Sarah Y Vinson, Randee J Waldman

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25/09/2020 Original Investigation
Racial Disparities in Incidence and Outcomes Among Patients With COVID...

Racial Disparities in Incidence and Outcomes Among Patients With COVID-19

JAMA

Authors
L. Silvia Muñoz-Price, Ann B. Nattinger, Frida Rivera, Ryan Hanson, Cameron G. Gmehlin, Adriana Perez, Siddhartha Singh, Blake W. Buchan, Nathan A. Ledeboer, Liliana E. Pezzin

Abstract
Importance Initial public health data show that Black race may be a risk factor for worse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective To characterize the association of race with incidence and outcomes of COVID-19, while controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.

Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study included 2595 consecutive adults tested for COVID-19 from March 12 to March 31, 2020, at Froedtert Health and Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee), the largest academic system in Wisconsin, with 879 inpatient beds (of which 128 are intensive care unit beds).

Exposures Race (Black vs White, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Native American or Alaska Native, Asian, or unknown).

Main Outcomes and Measures Main outcomes included COVID-19 positivity, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and death. Additional independent variables measured and tested included socioeconomic status, sex, and comorbidities. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Results A total of 2595 patients were included. The mean (SD) age was 53.8 (17.5) years, 978 (37.7%) were men, and 785 (30.2%) were African American patients. Of the 369 patients (14.2%) who tested positive for COVID-19, 170 (46.1%) were men, 148 (40.1%) were aged 60 years or older, and 218 (59.1%) were African American individuals. Positive tests were associated with Black race (odds ratio [OR], 5.37; 95% CI, 3.94-7.29; P = .001), male sex (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.21-2.00; P = .001), and age 60 years or older (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.53-2.73; P = .001). Zip code of residence explained 79% of the overall variance in COVID-19 positivity in the cohort (ρ = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91). Adjusting for zip code of residence, Black race (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.00-3.65; P = .04) and poverty (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.20-12.30; P = .02) were associated with hospitalization. Poverty (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.08-11.80; P = .04) but not Black race (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.75-3.07; P = .24) was associated with intensive care unit admission. Overall, 20 (17.2%) deaths associated with COVID-19 were reported. Shortness of breath at presentation (OR, 10.67; 95% CI, 1.52-25.54; P = .02), higher body mass index (OR per unit of body mass index, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35; P = .006), and age 60 years or older (OR, 22.79; 95% CI, 3.38-53.81; P = .001) were associated with an increased likelihood of death.

Conclusions and Relevance In this cross-sectional study of adults tested for COVID-19 in a large midwestern academic health system, COVID-19 positivity was associated with Black race. Among patients with COVID-19, both race and poverty were associated with higher risk of hospitalization, but only poverty was associated with higher risk of intensive care unit admission. These findings can be helpful in targeting mitigation strategies for racial disparities in the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19.

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24/09/2020 Letter
Friends and enemies of humans and viruses

EUROPEAN REVIEW FOR MEDICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Authors
Scopetta Ciriaco

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23/09/2020 Articles
Diagnosis of physical and mental health conditions in primary care dur...

Diagnosis of physical and mental health conditions in primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective cohort study

THE LANCET

Authors
Richard Williams, David A Jenkins, Darren M Ashcroft,Ben Brown, Stephen Campbell, Matthew J Carr, Sudeh Cheraghi-sohi, Navneet Kapur, Owain Thomas, Roger T Webb, Niels Peek

Read More »

21/09/2020 Editorial
Safely returning clinically vulnerable people to work

THE BMJ

Authors
Ewan Macdonald, John Middleton, Drushca Lalloo, Trisha Greenhalgh

Read More »

19/09/2020 Articles
The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms of pregnant and non-pregnant wo...

The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms of pregnant and non-pregnant women during the COVID-19 epidemic

NATURE

Authors
Yongjie Zhou, Hui Shi, Zhengkui Liu, Songxu Peng, Ruoxi Wang, Ling Qi, Zezhi Li, Jiezhi Yang, Yali Ren, Xiuli Song, Lingyun Zeng, Wei Qian, Xiangyang Zhang

Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants. The mental health status was assessed by patient health questionnaire, generalized anxiety disorder scale, insomnia severity index, somatization subscale of the symptom checklist 90, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist-5. Totally, 859 respondents were enrolled, including 544 pregnant women and 315 non-pregnant women. In this study, 5.3%, 6.8%, 2.4%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of pregnant women were identified to have symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical discomfort, insomnia, and PTSD, respectively. However, the corresponding prevalence rates among non-pregnant women were 17.5%, 17.5%, 2.5%, 5.4%, 5.7%, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, we observed that pregnancy was associated a reduced risk of symptoms of depression (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12–0.45), anxiety (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.16–0.42), insomnia (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06–0.58), and PTSD (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04–0.53) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Our results indicate that during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, pregnant women have an advantage of facing mental problems caused by COVID-19, showing fewer depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms than non-pregnant women.

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17/09/2020 World Report
A special self-image is no defence against COVID-19

NATURE

Authors
MARTHA LINCOLN

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16/09/2020 Comment
No patient safety without health worker safety

THE LANCET

Authors
Alexandra Shaw, Kelsey Flott, Gianluca Fontana, Mike Durkin, Ara Darzi

Read More »

14/09/2020 Features
Understanding the US failure on coronavirus—an essay by Drew Altman

THE BMJ

Authors
Drew Altman

Read More »

14/09/2020 Rapid Communication
COVID-19 risk and outcomes in patients with substance use disorders: a...

COVID-19 risk and outcomes in patients with substance use disorders: analyses from electronic health records in the United States

NATURE

Authors
Quan Qiu Wang, David C. Kaelber, Rong Xu, Nora D. Volkow

Abstract
The global pandemic of COVID-19 is colliding with the epidemic of opioid use disorders (OUD) and other substance use disorders (SUD) in the United States (US). Currently, there is limited data on risks, disparity, and outcomes for COVID-19 in individuals suffering from SUD. This is a retrospective case-control study of electronic health records (EHRs) data of 73,099,850 unique patients, of whom 12,030 had a diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients with a recent diagnosis of SUD (within past year) were at significantly increased risk for COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio or AOR = 8.699 [8.411–8.997], P < 10−30), an effect that was strongest for individuals with OUD (AOR = 10.244 [9.107–11.524], P < 10−30), followed by individuals with tobacco use disorder (TUD) (AOR = 8.222 ([7.925–8.530], P < 10−30). Compared to patients without SUD, patients with SUD had significantly higher prevalence of chronic kidney, liver, lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer. Among patients with recent diagnosis of SUD, African Americans had significantly higher risk of COVID-19 than Caucasians (AOR = 2.173 [2.01–2.349], P < 10−30), with strongest effect for OUD (AOR = 4.162 [3.13–5.533], P < 10−25). COVID-19 patients with SUD had significantly worse outcomes (death: 9.6%, hospitalization: 41.0%) than general COVID-19 patients (death: 6.6%, hospitalization: 30.1%) and African Americans with COVID-19 and SUD had worse outcomes (death: 13.0%, hospitalization: 50.7%) than Caucasians (death: 8.6%, hospitalization: 35.2%). These findings identify individuals with SUD, especially individuals with OUD and African Americans, as having increased risk for COVID-19 and its adverse outcomes, highlighting the need to screen and treat individuals with SUD as part of the strategy to control the pandemic while ensuring no disparities in access to healthcare support.

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14/09/2020 Comment
COVID-19 and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa: implications of lock...

COVID-19 and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa: implications of lockdown during agricultural planting seasons

NPJ

Authors
Ayansina Ayanlade, Maren Radeny

ABSTRACT
COVID-19 pandemic movement restrictions as part of the control measures put in place by countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has implications on food security, as movement restrictions coincided with planting periods for most of the staple crops. The measures are affecting important staple crops in SSA, and are likely to exacerbate food security challenges in many countries. Achieving adequate food supply in SSA requires developing better policies and packages to confronting the challenge of reducing hunger post COVID-19 pandemic. The lessons learned after COVID-19 crisis will be very important for African countries to rethink their strategies and policies for sustainable economic growth, as COVID-19 many have significant impacts on all sectors of their economies.

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14/09/2020 Comment
Artifcial intelligence, drug repurposing and peer review

NATURE

Authors
Jeremy M. Levin, Tudor I. Oprea, Sagie Davidovich, Thomas Clozel, John P. Overington, Quentin Vanhaelen, Charles R. Cantor, Evelyne Bischof, Alex Zhavoronkov

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12/09/2020 Editorial
Global collaboration for health: rhetoric versus reality

THE LANCET

Authors
THE LANCET

Read More »

11/09/2020 Editorial
The Fellowship Experience in Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology—Strat...

The Fellowship Experience in Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology—Strategies for Applicants and Fellows to Navigate the Coronavirus Crisis

ELSEVIER

Authors
Jared W.Feinman, Monique L.Roberts, LourdesAl-Ghofaily, AdamAdenwala, John G.Augoustides

Read More »

09/09/2020 World Review
How the FDA should protect its integrity from politics

NATURE

Authors
Joshua Sharfstein

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04/09/2020 Articles
Plastic surgery in the time of Coronavirus in Italy. Can we really say...

Plastic surgery in the time of Coronavirus in Italy. Can we really say “Thanks God we are plastic surgeons?”

ELSEVIER

Authors
Elia Rossella, Giudice Giuseppe, Maruccia Michele

Read More »

03/09/2020 Articles
Reopening Primary Schools during the Pandemic

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Meira Levinson, D.Phil., Muge Cevik, M.D., and Marc Lipsitch, D.Phil

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03/09/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Public Health Decision Making during Covid-19 — Fulfilling the CDC Ple...

Public Health Decision Making during Covid-19 — Fulfilling the CDC Pledge to the American People

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Sonja A. Rasmussen, Denise J. Jamieson

Read More »

02/09/2020 Original Investigation
Prevalence of Depression Symptoms in US Adults Before and During the C...

Prevalence of Depression Symptoms in US Adults Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Catherine K. Ettman, Salma M. Abdalla, Gregory H. Cohen, MPhil, Laura Sampson, Patrick M. Vivier, Sandro Galea

ABSTRACT
Importance The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the policies to contain it have been a near ubiquitous exposure in the US with unknown effects on depression symptoms.
Objective To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depression symptoms among US adults during vs before the COVID-19 pandemic.
Design, Setting, and Participants This nationally representative survey study used 2 population-based surveys of US adults aged 18 or older. During COVID-19, estimates were derived from the COVID-19 and Life Stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-being study, conducted from March 31, 2020, to April 13, 2020. Before COVID-19 estimates were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2017 to 2018. Data were analyzed from April 15 to 20, 2020.
Exposures The COVID-19 pandemic and outcomes associated with the measures to mitigate it.
Main Outcomes and Measures Depression symptoms, defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 cutoff of 10 or higher. Categories of depression symptoms were defined as none (score, 0-4), mild (score, 5-9), moderate (score, 10-14), moderately severe (score, 15-19), and severe (score, ≥20).
Results A total of 1470 participants completed the COVID-19 and Life Stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-being survey (completion rate, 64.3%), and after removing those with missing data, the final during–COVID-19 sample included 1441 participants (619 participants [43.0%] aged 18-39 years; 723 [50.2%] men; 933 [64.7%] non-Hispanic White). The pre–COVID-19 sample included 5065 participants (1704 participants [37.8%] aged 18-39 years; 2588 [51.4%] women; 1790 [62.9%] non-Hispanic White). Depression symptom prevalence was higher in every category during COVID-19 compared with before (mild: 24.6% [95% CI, 21.8%-27.7%] vs 16.2% [95% CI, 15.1%-17.4%]; moderate: 14.8% [95% CI, 12.6%-17.4%] vs 5.7% [95% CI, 4.8%-6.9%]; moderately severe: 7.9% [95% CI, 6.3%-9.8%] vs 2.1% [95% CI, 1.6%-2.8%]; severe: 5.1% [95% CI, 3.8%-6.9%] vs 0.7% [95% CI, 0.5%-0.9%]). Higher risk of depression symptoms during COVID-19 was associated with having lower income (odds ratio, 2.37 [95% CI, 1.26-4.43]), having less than $5000 in savings (odds ratio, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.02-2.26]), and exposure to more stressors (odds ratio, 3.05 [95% CI, 1.95-4.77]).
Conclusions and Relevance These findings suggest that prevalence of depression symptoms in the US was more than 3-fold higher during COVID-19 compared with before the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals with lower social resources, lower economic resources, and greater exposure to stressors (eg, job loss) reported a greater burden of depression symptoms. Post–COVID-19 plans should account for the probable increase in mental illness to come, particularly among at-risk populations.

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02/09/2020 Analysis
Integrating climate action for health into covid-19 recovery plans

THE BMJ

Authors
K Belesova

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01/09/2020 Editorial
Air travel in the time of COVID-19

THE LANCET

Authors
THE LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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01/09/2020 Viewpoint
Opportunities for Research on the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders...

Opportunities for Research on the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders in the Context of COVID-19

JAMA

Authors
Carlos Blanco, Wilson M. Compton, Nora D. Volkow

Read More »

01/09/2020 Editorial
Water and sanitation in a post-COVID world

THE LANCET

Authors
THE LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH

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30/08/2020 Articles
Belief in COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories Reduces Social Distancing over ...

Belief in COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories Reduces Social Distancing over Time

WILEY ONLINE LIBRARY

Authors
Kinga Bierwiaczonek, Jonas R. Kunst, Olivia Pich


ABSTRACT
Background
Conspiracy theories about the origins of COVID‐19 are widespread and have even been propagated by highly ranked state officials and politicians in the US. Health authorities have cautioned that such theories, although not questioning the existence of the pandemic, may increase the spread of the virus by reducing people's efforts to socially distance.
Methods We test this proposition empirically using longitudinal survey data collected at five timepoints during the early outbreak of the virus in the US (N = 403).
Results Multivariate growth curve analyses showed that, although conspiracy beliefs decreased and social distancing increased over time, people holding more conspiracy beliefs at the beginning of the pandemic showed the lowest increase in social distancing. Moreover, cross‐lagged analyses demonstrated that people who reported more conspiracy beliefs at any wave tended to report less social distancing at the following wave.
Conclusions Our findings show that COVID‐19 conspiracy theories pose a significant threat to public health as they may reduce adherence to social distancing measures.

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26/08/2020 Viewpoint
TheTransformationalEffects ofCOVID-19 onMedicalEducation

JAMA

Authors
Catherine R. Lucey; S. Claiborne Johnston

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26/08/2020 Comment
Floods in China, COVID-19, and climate change

THE LANCET

Authors
Yuming Guo, Yao Wu, Bo Wen, Wenzhong Huang, Ke Ju, Yuan Gao, Shanshan Li

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25/08/2020 Analysis
Two metres or one: what is the evidence for physical distancing in cov...

Two metres or one: what is the evidence for physical distancing in covid-19?

THE BMJ

Authors
Nicholas R Jones, Zeshan U Qureshi, Robert J Temple, Jessica P J Larwood, Trisha Greenhalgh, Lydia Bourouiba

Read More »

25/08/2020 Articles
Epilepsy course during COVID-19 pandemic in three Italian epilepsy cen...

Epilepsy course during COVID-19 pandemic in three Italian epilepsy centers

ELSEVIER

Authors
Corrado Cabona, Francesco Deleo, Lucio Marinelli, Daniela Audenino, Dario Arnaldi, Francesca Rossi, Roberta Di Giacomo, Claudia Buffoni, Giuseppa Jolanda Rosa, Giuseppe Didato, Eleonora Arboscello, Marco de Curtis, Flavio Villani


ABSTRACT
During epidemic outbreaks, epilepsy course can be modified by different physical and psychological stressors and, most importantly, by irregular therapy intake. The effect of COVID-19 and quarantine isolation on the course of epilepsy and on incidence of new-onset seizures is still unclear. With the aim of managing epilepsy in quarantined patients, three Italian Epilepsy Centers set up telephone consultations using a semistructured interview, allowing a prospective collection of data on seizure course and other seizure-related problems during pandemic. The collected data on seizure course were compared with the analogous period of 2019. The level of patients' concern relating to the COVID-19 pandemic was also assessed using a numeric rating scale. To address the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on seizure incidence, data collection included the number of consultations for first seizures, relapse seizures, and status epilepticus (SE) in the emergency department of one of the participating centers. Clinical telephone interviews suggest the absence of quarantine effect on epilepsy course in our cohort. No differences in incidence of emergency consultations for seizures over a two-month period were also observed compared with a control period. As demonstrated in other infective outbreaks, good antiepileptic drug (AED) supplying, precise information, and reassurance are the most important factors in chronic conditions to minimize psychological and physical stress, and to avoid unplanned treatment interruptions.

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24/08/2020 Articles
COVID-19 prevalence and mortality in patients with cancer and the effe...

COVID-19 prevalence and mortality in patients with cancer and the effect of primary tumour subtype and patient demographics: a prospective cohort study

THE LANCET

Authors
Lennard Y W Lee, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Thomas Starkey, Sarah E W Briggs, Roland Arnold, Vartika Bisht, Stephen Booth, Naomi A Campton, Vinton W T Cheng, Graham Collins, Helen M Curley, Philip Earwaker, Matthew W Fittall, Spyridon Gennatas, Anshita Goel, Simon Hartley, Daniel J Hughes, David Kerr, Alvin J X Lee, Rebecca J Lee, Siow Ming Lee, Hayley Mckenzie, Chris P Middleton, Nirupa Murugaesu, Tom Newsom-Davis, Anna C Olsson-Brown, Claire Palles, Thomas Powles, Emily A Protheroe, Karin Purshouse, Archana Sharma-Oates, Shivan Sivakumar, Ashley J Smith, Oliver Topping, Chris D Turnbull, Csilla Várnai, Adam D M Briggs, Gary Middleton, Rachel Kerr,

Read More »

23/08/2020 Comment
The NIMH global mental health research community and COVID-19

THE LANCET

Authors
Atif Rahman, John A Naslund, Theresa S Betancourt, Candace J Black, Anant Bhan, William Byansi, Hongtu Chen, Bradley N Gaynes, Carlos Gomez Restrepo, Lídia Gouveia, Syed Usman Hamdani, Lisa A Marsch, Inge Petersen, Ozge Sensoy Bahar, Laura Shields-Zeeman, Fred Ssewamala, Milton L Wainberg

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10/08/2020 Articles
Home Dialysis in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Era

ACKD

Authors
Preethi Yerram, Madhukar Misra

Read More »

01/08/2020 Articles
Lockdown and diabetes: Perspectives from Zimbabwe

DIABETES RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE

Authors
Heather Koga, Yemurai Machirori

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01/08/2020 World Report
COVID-19 has “devastating” effect on women and girls

THE LANCET

Authors
SOPHIE COUSINS


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30/07/2020 Articles
Psychiatric face of COVID-19

NATURE

Authors
Luca Steardo Jr., Luca Steardo, Alexei Verkhratsky



ABSTRACT
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a severe multiorgan pathology which, besides cardio-respiratory manifestations, affects the function of the central nervous system (CNS). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), similarly to other coronaviruses demonstrate neurotropism; the viral infection of the brain stem may complicate the course of the disease through damaging central cardio-respiratory control. The systemic inflammation as well as neuroinflammatory changes are associated with massive increase of the brain pro-inflammatory molecules, neuroglial reactivity, altered neurochemical landscape and pathological remodelling of neuronal networks. These organic changes, emerging in concert with environmental stress caused by experiences of intensive therapy wards, pandemic fears and social restrictions, promote neuropsychiatric pathologies including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), various psychoses, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. The neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 represent serious clinical challenge that has to be considered for future complex therapies.

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30/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Covid’s Color Line — Infectious Disease, Inequity, and Racial Justice

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Michele K. Evans


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26/07/2020 Analysis
Is risk compensation threatening public health in the covid-19 pandemi...

Is risk compensation threatening public health in the covid-19 pandemic?

THE BMJ

Authors
Eleni Mantzari, G James Rubin, Theresa M Marteau



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24/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
The COVID-19 pandemic and human fertility

SCIENCE

Authors
A. Aassve,N. Cavalli, L. Mencarini, S. Plach, M. Livi Bacci



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22/07/2020 News
Covid-19: A world without WHO is a world in danger, experts warn

THE BMJ

Authors
Elisabeth Mahase


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21/07/2020 Report
Serial interval of SARS-CoV-2 was shortened over time by nonpharmaceut...

Serial interval of SARS-CoV-2 was shortened over time by nonpharmaceutical interventions

SCIENCE

Authors
Sheikh Taslim Ali, Lin Wang, Eric H. Y. Lau, Xiao-Ke Xu, Zhanwei Du, Ye Wu, Gabriel M. Leung, Benjamin J. Cowling



ABSTRACT
Studies of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reported varying estimates of epidemiological parameters including serial interval distributions, i.e., the time between illness onset in successive cases in a transmission chain, and reproduction numbers. By compiling a line-list database of transmission pairs in mainland China, we show that mean serial intervals of COVID-19 have shortened substantially from 7.8 days to 2.6 days within a month (January 9 to February 13, 2020). This change is driven by enhanced non-pharmaceutical interventions, in particular case isolation. We also show that using real-time estimation of serial intervals allowing for variation over time, provides more accurate estimates of reproduction numbers than using conventionally fixed serial interval distributions. These findings could improve assessment of transmission dynamics, forecasting future incidence, and estimating the impact of control measures.

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20/07/2020 Articles
Effect of delays in the 2-week-wait cancer referral pathway during the...

Effect of delays in the 2-week-wait cancer referral pathway during the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer survival in the UK: a modelling study

THE LANCET

Authors
Amit Sud, Bethany Torr, Michael E Jones, John Broggio, Stephen Scott, Chey Loveday, Alice Garrett, Firza Gronthoud, David L Nicol, Shaman Jhanji, Stephen A Boyce, Matthew Williams, Elio Riboli, David C Muller, Emma Kipps, James Larkin, Neal Navani, Charles Swanton, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Ethna McFerran, Mark Lawler, Richard Houlston, Clare Turnbull



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20/07/2020 Articles
COVID-19 and Down’s syndrome: are we heading for a disaster?

NATURE

Authors
Rodolphe Dard, Nathalie Janel, François Vialard



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20/07/2020 Letter
Completion of Advance Directives and Documented Care Preferences Durin...

Completion of Advance Directives and Documented Care Preferences During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Catherine L. Auriemma, Scott D. Halpern, Jeremy M. Asch, Matthew Van Der Tuyn, David A. Asch



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18/07/2020 Comment
The Lancet–Chatham House Commission on improving population health pos...

The Lancet–Chatham House Commission on improving population health post COVID-19

THE LANCET

Authors
Harry Rutter, Richard Horton, Theresa M Marteau



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18/07/2020 World Report
New funds proposed to prevent pandemics

THE LANCET

Authors
Ann Danaiya Usher



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17/07/2020 Editorial
The COVID-19 infodemic

THE LANCET

Authors
The Lancet Infectious Diseases



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17/07/2020 Articles
A projection for psychiatry in the post-COVID-19 era: potential trends...

A projection for psychiatry in the post-COVID-19 era: potential trends, challenges, and directions

NATURE

Authors
Halide Bilge Türközer, Dost Öngür



ABSTRACT
The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the face of psychiatry over a very short time period. Given the detrimental impact of the pandemic on mental health and the economy, more difficult days are ahead for psychiatry. The rising public health burden of mental illnesses will inevitably exceed the capacity of psychiatric services in the United States and worldwide. The pandemic has also profoundly affected psychiatric research due to safety concerns and containment efforts. Intermediate and long-term ramifications may even be more serious. In addition to the effects of the economic downturn on available research funding, existing research tools and protocols may not meet the emerging needs in the post-COVID-19 era. This paper discusses potential trends and challenges that psychiatric practice and research may encounter in this period from the viewpoint of workers in the field. We outline some measures that clinicians and researchers can implement to adapt to the emerging changes in psychiatry and to mitigate the forthcoming effects of the crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has created a sense of danger, uncertainty, and loss of control in populations worldwide, placing mental health discussions high on the public’s agenda. Disasters traumatize societies, typically in a time-limited event with destructive outcomes that hit one community and require others to help. The pandemic is unusual because the world faces a danger with an unknown end date. Communities that support each other in normal times are now competing for scarce resources to cope with their own crises. The impact of this crisis on individuals and societies is compounded by the experience of facing danger without help. If the pandemic lasts for an extended period, as projected by some models [1, 2], psychiatric practice and the place of psychiatry in medicine are likely to undergo lasting changes. Here, we will (i) identify potential trends and challenges that psychiatric practice and research may encounter during this period, (ii) will suggest concrete measures that clinicians and researchers can take to mitigate the effects of this crisis at individual and institutional levels.

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16/07/2020 World Review
The impact of coronavirus in Brazil: politics and the pandemic

NATURE

Authors
DANIELA PONCE


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15/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
The Climate Crisis and Covid-19 — A Major Threat to the Pandemic Respo...

The Climate Crisis and Covid-19 — A Major Threat to the Pandemic Response

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Renee N. Salas, James M. Shultz, Caren G. Solomon


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15/07/2020 Comment
Survivorship after COVID-19 ICU stay

NATURE

Authors
Megan M. Hosey, Dale M. Needham


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15/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
COVID19 and increased mortality in African Americans: socioeconomic di...

COVID19 and increased mortality in African Americans: socioeconomic differences or does the renin angiotensin system also contribute?

NATURE

Authors
Michael Doumas, Dimitrios Patoulias, Alexandra Katsimardou, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Asterios Karagiannis


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13/07/2020 Comment
A crisis of accountability for women’s, children’s, and adolescents’ h...

A crisis of accountability for women’s, children’s, and adolescents’ health

THE LANCET

Authors
Joy Phumaphi, Elizabeth Mason, Nicholas Kojo Alipui, Jovana Ríos Cisnero, Carol Kidu, Brenda Killen, Giorgi Pkhakadze, Gita Sen, Alicia Ely Yamin, Shyama Kuruvilla


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09/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Rural Matters — Coronavirus and the Navajo Nation

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Heather Kovich


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09/07/2020 Editorial
Face masks can be devastating for people with hearing loss

THE BMJ

Authors
Joshua Chodosh, Michael L Freedman, Barbara E Weinstein, Jan Blustein


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09/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Disease Control, Civil Liberties, and Mass Testing — Calibrating Restr...

Disease Control, Civil Liberties, and Mass Testing — Calibrating Restrictions during the Covid-19 Pandemic

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
David M. Studdert, Mark A. Hall


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09/07/2020 COMMENTARY
Suggestions from Cremona, Italy: 2 months into the pandemic at the fro...

Suggestions from Cremona, Italy: 2 months into the pandemic at the frontline of COVID-19 in Europe

ELSEVIER

Authors
A. Pan, M. Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, G. Bosio, L. Cammelli, R. Canino, A. Coluccello, A. Cuzzoli, A. Machiavelli, L. Romanini, A. Zoncada, S. Testa


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09/07/2020 Correspondence
Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London ...

Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London frontline health-care workers

THE LANCET

Authors
Catherine F Houlihan, Nina Vora, Thomas Byrne, Dan Lewer, Gavin Kelly, Judith Heaney, Sonia Gandhi, Moira J Spyer, Rupert Beale, Peter Cherepanov, David Moore, Richard Gilson, Steve Gamblin, George Kassiotis, Laura E McCoy, Charles Swanton, Andrew Hayward, Eleni Nastouli



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08/07/2020 Articles
Psychosocial Vulnerabilities to Upper Respiratory Infectious Illness: ...

Psychosocial Vulnerabilities to Upper Respiratory Infectious Illness: Implications for Susceptibility to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

SAGE JOURNALS

Authors
Sheldon Cohen



ABSTRACT
For 35 years, our laboratory has been involved in identifying psychosocial factors that predict who becomes ill when they are exposed to a virus affecting the upper respiratory tract. To pursue this question, we used a unique viral-challenge design in which we assessed behavioral, social, and psychological factors in healthy adults. We subsequently exposed these adults to a cold or influenza virus and then monitored them in quarantine for 5 to 6 days for onset of respiratory illness. Factors we found to be associated with greater risk of respiratory illnesses after virus exposure included smoking, ingesting an inadequate level of vitamin C, and chronic psychological stress. Those associated with decreased risk included social integration, social support, physical activity, adequate and efficient sleep, and moderate alcohol intake. We cautiously suggest that our findings could have implications for identifying who becomes ill when exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This argument is based on evidence that the associations we report are replicable across multiple respiratory viruses and that the pathways found to link psychosocial factors to colds and influenza may play similar roles in COVID-19.

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07/07/2020 Letter
Romeo and Juliet: Revisited (at the time of COVID-19)

ELSEVIER

Authors
Giorgio Costantino, Flora Peyvandib, Nicola Montano, Carlo Agostoni


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06/07/2020 Brief Report
The implications of silent transmission for the control of COVID-19 ou...

The implications of silent transmission for the control of COVID-19 outbreaks

PNAS (PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

Authors
Seyed M. Moghadas, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Pratha Sah, Abhishek Pandey, Affan Shoukat, Burton H. Singer, Alison P. Galvani



ABSTRACT
Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), unprecedented movement restrictions and social distancing measures have been implemented worldwide. The socioeconomic repercussions have fueled calls to lift these measures. In the absence of population-wide restrictions, isolation of infected individuals is key to curtailing transmission. However, the effectiveness of symptom-based isolation in preventing a resurgence depends on the extent of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission. We evaluate the contribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission based on recent individual-level data regarding infectiousness prior to symptom onset and the asymptomatic proportion among all infections. We found that the majority of incidences may be attributable to silent transmission from a combination of the presymptomatic stage and asymptomatic infections. Consequently, even if all symptomatic cases are isolated, a vast outbreak may nonetheless unfold. We further quantified the effect of isolating silent infections in addition to symptomatic cases, finding that over one-third of silent infections must be isolated to suppress a future outbreak below 1% of the population. Our results indicate that symptom-based isolation must be supplemented by rapid contact tracing and testing that identifies asymptomatic and presymptomatic cases, in order to safely lift current restrictions and minimize the risk of resurgence.

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06/07/2020 Articles
The COVID-19 Epidemic and the Prison System in Italy

SAGE JOURNALS

Authors
Mariano Cingolani, Lina Caraceni, Nunzia Cannovo, Piergiorgio Fedeli



ABSTRACT
The Italian Ministry of Justice and that of Health have established two strategies to limit the spread of COVID-19 in prisons: progressive isolation from the external world and adoption of practices to identify possible cases and to treat infected subjects. After the announcement of regulations revolts erupted in numerous Italian prisons. The motivations and effects of these strategy are discussed critically into the search for a balance between the right to health and other rights of prisoners in Italian prisons with the problem of an occupancy level of 121.75%.

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04/07/2020 Correspondence
Reduction in air pollution and attributable mortality due to COVID-19 ...

Reduction in air pollution and attributable mortality due to COVID-19 lockdown

THE LANCET

Authors
Hicham Achebak, Hervé Petetin, Marcos Quijal-Zamorano, Dene Bowdalo, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Joan Ballester



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03/07/2020 Reviews
Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on supply and use of blood for transf...

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on supply and use of blood for transfusion

THE LANCET

Authors
Prof Simon J Stanworth, Helen V New, Torunn O Apelseth, Susan Brunskill, Rebecca Cardigan, Carolyn Doree, Marc Germain, Mindy Goldman, Edwin Massey, Daniele Prati, Nadine Shehata, Cynthia So-Osman, Jecko Thachil


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01/07/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Are U.S. Hospitals Still “Recession-proof”?

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Ben Teasdale, M.Phil., Kevin A. Schulman



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01/07/2020 Point of view
Fast reshaping of intensive care unit facilities in a large metropolit...

Fast reshaping of intensive care unit facilities in a large metropolitan hospital in Milan, Italy: facing the COVID-19 pandemic emergency

CRITICAL CARE AND RESUSCITATION

Authors
Alberto Zangrillo, Luigi Beretta, Paolo Silvani, Sergio Colombo, Anna Mara Scandroglio, Antonio Dell’Acqua, Evgeny Fominskiy, Giovanni Landoni, Giacomo Monti, Maria Luisa Azzolini, Fabrizio Monaco, Alessandro Oriani, Alessandro Belletti, Marianna Sartorelli, Ottavia Pallanch, Omar Saleh, Chiara Sartini, Pasquale Nardelli, Gaetano Lombardi, Federica Morselli, Tommaso Scquizzato, Antonio Frontera, Annalisa Ruggeri, Raffaella Scotti, Andrea Assanelli, Lorenzo Dagna, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Antonella Castagna, Paolo Scarpellini, Davide Di Napoli, Alberto Ambrosio, Fabio Ciceri, Moreno Tresoldi



ABSTRACT
At the end of 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak spread from China all around the world, causing thousands of deaths. In Italy, the hardest hit region was Lombardy, with the first reported case on 20 February 2020. San Raffaele Scientific Institute — a large tertiary hospital and research centre in Milan, Italy — was immediately involved in the management of the public health emergency. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the elective surgical activity of the hospital was rapidly reduced and large areas of the hospital were simultaneously reorganised to admit and assist patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition, the hospital became the regional referral hub for cardiovascular emergencies in order to keep ensuring a high level of health care to non-COVID-19 patients in northern Italy. In a few days, a COVID-19 emergency department was created, improving the general ward capacity to a total number of 279 beds dedicated to patients with COVID-19. Moreover, the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds was increased from 28 to 72 (54 of them dedicated to patients with COVID-19, and 18 to cardiology and cardiac surgery hub emergencies), both converting pre-existing areas and creating new high technology spaces. All the involved health care personnel were rapidly trained to use personal protection equipment and to manage this particular category of patients both in general wards and ICUs. Furthermore, besides clinical activities, continuously important research projects were carried out in order to find new strategies and more effective therapies to better face an unprecedented health emergency in Italy.


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30/06/2020 Editorial
Twin epidemics of covid-19 and non-communicable disease

THE BMJ

Authors
Trevor A Sheldon, John Wright


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30/06/2020 PERSPECTIVE
The art of medicine Reflecting on experiences of social distancing

THE LANCET

Authors
Havi Carel, Matthew Ratcliffe,Tom Froese


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30/06/2020 Articles
Letter to editor: CoVID-19 pandemic and sleep disorders—a web survey i...

Letter to editor: CoVID-19 pandemic and sleep disorders—a web survey in Italy

SPRINGER LINK

Authors
Pierluigi Innocenti, Antonella Puzella, Maria Paola Mogavero, Oliviero Bruni, Raffaele Ferri


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29/06/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Taking a Closer Look at COVID-19, Health Inequities, and Racism

JAMA

Authors
Jennifer Abbasi


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29/06/2020 Viewpoint
Rethinking Regional Neurologic Care in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Er...

Rethinking Regional Neurologic Care in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Era

JAMA

Authors
Benjamin P. George, Adam G. Kelly


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29/06/2020 Original Investigation
Attitudes and Psychological Factors Associated With News Monitoring, S...

Attitudes and Psychological Factors Associated With News Monitoring, Social Distancing, Disinfecting, and Hoarding Behaviors Among US Adolescents During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Cara A. Palmer



ABSTRACT
Importance As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads across the world, it is critical to understand the psychological factors associated with pandemic-related behaviors. This perspecitve may be especially important to study among adolescents, who are less likely to experience severe symptoms but contribute to the spread of the virus.
Objective To examine psychological factors associated with adolescents’ behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Design, Setting, and Participants This self-reported survey conducted from March 20 to 22, 2020, recruited a population-based sample of adolescents via social media to complete an anonymous survey. Participants were eligible if they had internet access, lived in the United States, and were aged 13 to 18 years.
Main Outcomes and Measures Outcomes included COVID-19 news monitoring, social distancing, disinfecting, and hoarding behaviors during the 7 days after the United States declared a national emergency. The psychological factors were attitudes about COVID-19 severity, social responsibility values, social trust, and self-interest. The a priori hypotheses were that greater attitudes about the severity of COVID-19, greater social responsibility, and greater social trust would be associated with greater news monitoring, social distancing, and disinfecting, whereas greater self-interest would be associated with more hoarding.
Results The sample included 770 adolescents collected via convenience sampling (mean [SD] age, 16.3 [1.1] years; 575 girls [74.7%]). Many teens reported not engaging in pure social distancing (528 [68.6%]), but they were monitoring the news (688 [89.4%]) and disinfecting daily (676 [87.8%]). Some teens reported hoarding (152 [19.7%]). Attitudes about the greater severity of COVID-19 were associated with more social distancing (β = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.25), disinfecting (β = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23), and news monitoring (β = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.33) but also more hoarding (β = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.16). Greater social responsibility was associated with more disinfecting (β = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.32) and news monitoring (β = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.22) and less hoarding (β = −0.07; 95% CI = −0.14 to −0.01). Greater self-interest values were associated with less social distancing (β = −0.08; 95% CI = −0.15 to −0.01) and more hoarding (β = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.15). Greater social trust was associated with less hoarding (β = −0.09; 95% CI, −0.16 to −0.02).
Conclusions and Relevance The results of this survey study suggest that emphasizing the severity of COVID-19 and the social implications of pandemic-related behaviors may be important for teens, particularly for those who are not following preventive health behaviors or who are engaging in hoarding.


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29/06/2020 Viewpoint
Cognitive Bias and Public Health Policy During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Scott D. Halpern, Robert D. Truog, Franklin G. Miller


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29/06/2020 Letter
No more “social distancing” but practice physical separation

SPRINGER LINK

Authors
Debasree Das Gupta, David W. S. Wong


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29/06/2020 Original Article
Impact of renal function on admission in COVID-19 patients: an analysi...

Impact of renal function on admission in COVID-19 patients: an analysis of the international HOPE COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID 19) Registry

SPRINGER LINK

Authors
Aitor Uribarri, Iván J. Núñez-Gil, Alvaro Aparisi, Victor M. Becerra-Muñoz, Gisela Feltes, Daniela Trabattoni, Inmaculada Fernández-Rozas, María C. Viana-Llamas, Martino Pepe, Enrico Cerrato, Thamar Capel-Astrua, Rodolfo Romero, Alex F. Castro-Mejía, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Javier López-País, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Oscar Fabregat-Andres, Alfredo Bardají, Sergio Raposeiras-Roubin, Francisco Marín, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Carlos Macaya, Vicente Estrada


ABSTRACT
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite its international aggressive extension, with a significant morbidity and mortality, the impact of renal function on its prognosis is uncertain.
Methods Analysis from the international HOPE-Registry (NCT04334291). The objective was to evaluate the association between kidney failure severity on admission with the mortality of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were categorized in 3 groups according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate on admission (eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2).
Results 758 patients were included: mean age was 66 ± 18 years, and 58.6% of patient were male. Only 8.5% of patients had a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, 30% of patients had kidney dysfunction upon admission (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). These patients received less frequently pharmacological treatment with hydroxychloroquine or antivirals and had a greater number of complications such as sepsis (11.9% vs 26.4% vs 40.8%, p < 0.001) and respiratory failure (35.4% vs 72.2% vs 62.0%, p < 0.001) as well as a higher in-hospital mortality rate (eGFR > 60 vs eGFR 30-60 vs and eGFR < 30, 18.4% vs 56.5% vs 65.5%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis: age, hypertension, renal function, 02 saturation < 92% and lactate dehydrogenase elevation on admission independently predicted all-cause mortality.
Conclusions Renal failure on admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequent and is associated with a greater number of complications and in-hospital mortality. Our data comes from a multicenter registry and therefore does not allow to have a precise mortality risk assessment. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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29/06/2020 Letter
Italian pulmonologist units and COVID-19 outbreak: “mind the gap”!

BMC

Authors
Raffaele Scala, Teresa Renda, Antonio Corrado, Adriano Vaghi


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28/06/2020 FELLOW'S CORNER
It’s a small world after all: A Canadian resident’s perspective on COV...

It’s a small world after all: A Canadian resident’s perspective on COVID-19

SPRINGER LINK

Authors
Duncan E. K. Sutherland


ABSTRACT
Background COVID-19 has infected millions of people, with an estimated total dead in the hundreds of thousands. This has significantly impacted health care, including who is delivering it, how it is delivered, and how it is taught. This article describes challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of a Canadian nuclear medicine resident, including new risks with nuclear imaging, navigating new and sometimes challenging guidelines, as well as working and living within the confines of social distancing. At the time of writing this article, it has been 113 days since the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a public health emergency, and 72 days since it was declared a Pandemic. From the Johns Hopkins COVID-19 online interactive dashboard,1 there are approximately 5 million global cases with an estimated 328,000 deaths. There is even concern about multiple COVID-19 waves with the potential to extend the pandemic out for a year or longer.2 Pretty impressive, and frankly scary, for a virus that is less than a year old.

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27/06/2020 Editorial
Generation coronavirus?

THE LANCET

Authors
THE LANCET COMMISSION


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26/06/2020 Letter
COVID-19’s unsustainable waste management

SCIENCE

Authors
Siming You, Christian Sonne, Yong Sik Ok


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25/06/2020 Editorial
COVID-19 heralds a new era for chronic diseases in primary care

THE LANCET

Authors
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine


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24/06/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Ten considerations for effectively managing the COVID-19 transition

NATURE

Authors
Katrine Bach Habersaat, Cornelia Betsch, Margie Danchin, Cass R. Sunstein, Robert Böhm, Armin Falk, Noel T. Brewer, Saad B. Omer, Martha Scherzer, Sunita Sah, Edward F. Fischer, Andrea E. Scheel, Daisy Fancourt, Shinobu Kitayama, Eve Dubé, Julie Leask, Mohan Dutta, Noni E. MacDonald, Anna Temkina, Andreas Lieberoth, Mark Jackson, Stephan Lewandowsky, Holly Seale, Nils Fietje, Philipp Schmid, Michele Gelfand, Lars Korn, Sarah Eitze, Lisa Felgendreff, Philipp Sprengholz, Cristiana Salvi, Robb Butler



ABSTRACT
Governments around the world have implemented measures to manage the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the majority of these measures are proving effective, they have a high social and economic cost, and response strategies are being adjusted. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that communities should have a voice, be informed and engaged, and participate in this transition phase. We propose ten considerations to support this principle: (1) implement a phased approach to a ‘new normal’; (2) balance individual rights with the social good; (3) prioritise people at highest risk of negative consequences; (4) provide special support for healthcare workers and care staff; (5) build, strengthen and maintain trust; (6) enlist existing social norms and foster healthy new norms; (7) increase resilience and self-efficacy; (8) use clear and positive language; (9) anticipate and manage misinformation; and (10) engage with media outlets. The transition phase should also be informed by real-time data according to which governmental responses should be updated.

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23/06/2020 Articles
Medical Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Learning From A Distan...

Medical Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Learning From A Distance

ELSEVIER

Authors
Rachel Hilburg, Niralee Patel, Sophia Ambruso, Mollie A. Biewald, Samira S. Farouk



ABSTRACT
As paradigms of clinical care delivery have been significantly impacted by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, so has the structure, delivery, and future of medical education. Both undergraduate and graduate medical education have seen disruptions ranging from fully virtual delivery of educational content and limited clinical care for medical students to increased clinical demands with redeployment for residents and fellows. Adherence to social distancing has led to the adoption and implementation of already available technologies in medical education, including video conferencing softwares and social media platforms. Efficient and effective use of these technologies requires an understanding not only of these platforms and their features, but also of their inherent limitations. During a time of uncertainty and increased clinical demands, the approach to medical education must be thoughtful with attention to wellness of both the educator and learner. In this review, we discuss the influence of the pandemic on the existing medical education landscape, outline existing and proposed adaptations to social distancing, and describe challenges that lie ahead.

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23/06/2020 Articles
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on orthopedic trauma workload in a Lon...

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on orthopedic trauma workload in a London level 1 trauma center: the “golden month”

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS ONLINE

Authors
Chang Park, Kapil Sugand, Dinesh Nathwani, Rajarshi Bhattacharya, Khaled M Sarraf



ABSTRACT
Background and purpose — The COVID-19 pandemic has been recognized as an unprecedented global health crisis. This is the first observational study to evaluate its impact on the orthopedic workload in a London level 1 trauma center (i.e., a major trauma center [MTC]) before (2019) and during (2020) the “golden month” post-COVID-19 lockdown.
Patients and methods — We performed a longitudinal observational prevalence study of both acute orthopedic trauma referrals, operative and anesthetic casemix for the first “golden” month from March 17, 2020. We compared the data with the same period in 2019. Statistical analyses included median (median absolute deviation), risk and odds ratios, as well as Fisher’s exact test to calculate the statistical significance, set at p ≤ 0.05.
Results — Acute trauma referrals in the post-COVID period were almost halved compared with 2019, with similar distribution between pediatric and adult patients, requiring a significant 19% more admissions (RR 1.3, OR 2.6, p = 0.003). Hip fractures and polytrauma cases accounted for an additional 11% of the modal number of injuries in 2020, but with 19% reduction in isolated limb injuries that were modal in 2019. Total operative cases fell by a third during the COVID-19 outbreak. There was a decrease of 14% (RR 0.85, OR 0.20, p = 0.006) in aerosol-generating anesthetic techniques used.
Interpretation — The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a decline in the number of acute trauma referrals, admissions (but increased risk and odds ratio), operations, and aerosolizing anesthetic procedures since implementing social distancing and lockdown measures during the “golden month.”

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23/06/2020 Articles
Does a surgical helmet provide protection against aerosol transmitted ...

Does a surgical helmet provide protection against aerosol transmitted disease?

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS ONLINE

Authors
Max Joachim Temmesfeld,Rune Bruhn Jakobsen, Peter Grant



ABSTRACT
Background and purpose — The COVID-19 pandemic caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 has led to a global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE). Various alternatives to ordinary PPE have been suggested to reduce transmission, which is primarily through droplets and aerosols. For many years orthopedic surgeons have been using surgical helmets as personal protection against blood-borne pathogens during arthroplasty surgery. We have investigated the possibility of using the Stryker Flyte surgical helmet as a respiratory protective device against airborne- and droplet-transmitted disease, since the helmet shares many features with powered air-purifying respirators.
Materials and methods — Using an aerosol particle generator, we determined the filtration capacity of the Stryker Flyte helmet by placing particle counters measuring the concentrations of 0.3, 0.5, and 5 µm particles inside and outside of the helmet.
Results — We found that the helmet has insufficient capacity for filtrating aerosol particles, and, for 0.3 µm sized particles, we even recorded an accumulation of particles inside the helmet.
Interpretation — We conclude that the Stryker Flyte surgical helmet should not be used as a respiratory protective device when there is a risk for exposure to aerosol containing SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, in accordance with the recommendation from the manufacturer
The rapid development of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to severe shortages around the globe of personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare personnel such as regular surgical masks, tight-fitting masks (filtering facepieces [FFP]), protective eyeglasses, and face shields (Kamerow 2020, World Health Organization 2020). The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, is believed to spread primarily through droplets and aerosol in the immediate vicinity of an infected person (Bahl et al. 2020). A recent study showed that SARS-CoV-2 aerosols remain airborne and viable for at least 3 hours in closed spaces, thus raising the concern of airborne transmission (van Doremalen et al. 2020). A recent review also discussed the transmission of viral particles from aerosolized body fluids by using power drills, pulsed lavage, and other equipment during surgery (Basso et al. 2020). This has not been reported for SARS-CoV-2, but it is conceivable and has been shown in vitro for other viruses (Johnson and Robinson 1991, Garden et al. 2002).
Numerous alternative concepts of respiratory PPE have been suggested, for example the use of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR). In these devices, filtered air is drawn by an electric fan into a closed helmet. Even though PAPRs offer superior protection compared with standard FFPs, hospitals would have to pay a lot to commercially acquire a sufficient number of PAPRs to equip their healthcare personnel. Additionally, a shortage of PAPRs is to be expected during a pandemic.
Surgical helmets with internal electric fans share many features of a PAPR and were suggested as an alternative during the SARS epidemic in China in 2003 (Ahmed et al. 2005). Such helmets are regularly used in orthopedic arthroplasty surgery. The hood of the surgical helmet is air-permeable over the fan intake, while the rest of the hood material is practically air impermeable. The original purpose of surgical helmets was to protect patients from particles that the surgical team might emit into the wound. Additionally, surgical helmets will protect the surgeon from direct body fluid contamination.
The Flyte model (Stryker Instruments, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) is commonly used in Scandinavia, continental Europe, and the United States and thus available in many Western hospitals. We investigated the protective abilities of this helmet in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic as part of an ongoing research project, which aims to convert surgical helmets into PAPRs with the help of specialized filters. 

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23/06/2020 Articles
COVID-19 and Kidney Disease Disparities in the United States

ELSEVIER

Authors
Tessa K.Novick, Katherine Rizzolo, Lilia Cervantes



ABSTRACT
Racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, age, and sex-related health disparities in kidney disease are prominent in the United States. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected marginalized populations. Older adults, people experiencing unstable housing, racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants are potentially at increased risk for infection and severe complications from COVID-19. The direct and societal effects of the pandemic may increase risk of incident kidney disease and lead to worse outcomes for those with kidney disease. The rapid transition to telemedicine potentially limits access to care for older adults, immigrants, and people experiencing unstable housing. The economic impact of the pandemic has had a disproportionate effect on women, minorities and immigrants, which may limit their ability to manage kidney disease, and lead to complications or kidney disease progression. We describe the impact of COVID-19 on marginalized populations and highlight how the pandemic may exacerbate existing disparities in kidney disease.

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22/06/2020 Letter
Impact of Covid-19 epidemics in Pediatric Morbidity and utilization of...

Impact of Covid-19 epidemics in Pediatric Morbidity and utilization of Hospital Pediatric Services in Italy

WILEY ONLINE LIBRARY

Authors
Paolo Manzoni, Maria Angela Militello, Lorenzo Fiorica, Mariano Manzionna, Annarita Cappiello


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22/06/2020 Viewpoint
Reshaping the future of ethnobiology research after the COVID-19 pande...

Reshaping the future of ethnobiology research after the COVID-19 pandemic

NATURE

Authors
Ina Vandebroek, Andrea Pieroni, John Richard Stepp, Natalia Hanazaki, Ana Ladio, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves, David Picking, Rupika Delgoda, Alfred Maroyi, Tinde van Andel, Cassandra L. Quave, Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana, Rainer W. Bussmann, Guillaume Odonne, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Janelle Baker, Susan Kutz, Shrabya Timsina, Masayoshi Shigeta, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro Oliveira, Julio A. Hurrell, Patricia M. Arenas, Jeremias P. Puentes, Jean Hugé, Yeter Yeşil, Laurent Jean Pierre, Temesgen Magule Olango & Farid Dahdouh-Guebas



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20/06/2020 Editorial
COVID‐19: Some clinical questions after the first 4 months

WILEY ONLINE LIBRARY

Authors
Matteo Bassetti, Filippo Ansaldi, Giancarlo Icardi, Paolo Pelosi, Chiara Robba, Lucia Taramasso, Cecilia Trucchi Antonio Vena, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe



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20/06/2020 Comment
Offline: A novel solution to live with coronavirus

THE LANCET

Authors
RICHARD NORTON


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19/06/2020 Features
Ethical decision making in a pandemic: where are the voices of vulnera...

Ethical decision making in a pandemic: where are the voices of vulnerable people?

THE BMJ

Authors
Melissa McCullough


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19/06/2020 Protocol
An Internet-Based Intervention to Alleviate Stress During Social Isola...

An Internet-Based Intervention to Alleviate Stress During Social Isolation With Guided Relaxation and Meditation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

JMIR

Authors
Silvia Maria Francesca Pizzoli, Chiara Marzorati, Davide Mazzoni, Gabriella Pravettoni


ABSTRACT
Background: Psychophysiological stress and decreased well-being are relevant issues during prolonged social isolation periods. Relaxation practices may represent helpful exercises to cope with anxiety and stressful sensations.
Objective: The aim of this research protocol is to test whether remote relaxation practices such as natural sounds, deep respiration, and body scan meditation promote relaxation and improved emotional state and reduce psychomotor activation and the preoccupation related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
Methods: The study population will consist of 3 experimental groups that will randomly receive one of 3 internet-based audio clips containing a single session of guided breathing exercise, guided body scan exercise, or natural sounds. The participants will listen to the fully automated audio clip for 7 minutes and complete pre-post self-assessment scales on their perceived relaxation, psychomotor activation, level of worry associated with COVID-19, and emotional state. At the end of the session, the participants will also be asked to provide qualitative reports on their subjective experiences.
Results: Analyses will be performed to test the differences in the efficacy of the different audio clips in an internet-based intervention on 252 participants (84 per group), investigating whether natural sounds or remote guided practices such as deep respiration and body scan meditation positively enhance the participants’ perceived psychological state.
Conclusions: The study will provide information on if and to what extent guided practices can help in reducing psychological side effects related to social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic

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18/06/2020 Original Paper
Mining Physicians’ Opinions on Social Media to Obtain Insights Into CO...

Mining Physicians’ Opinions on Social Media to Obtain Insights Into COVID-19: Mixed Methods Analysis

JMIR

Authors
Abdullah Wahbeh, Tareq Nasralah, Mohammad Al-Ramahi, Omar El-Gayar



ABSTRACT
Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is considered to be the most daunting public health challenge in decades. With no effective treatments and with time needed to develop a vaccine, alternative approaches are being used to control this pandemic.
Objective: The objective of this paper was to identify topics, opinions, and recommendations about the COVID-19 pandemic discussed by medical professionals on the Twitter social medial platform.
Methods: Using a mixed methods approach blending the capabilities of social media analytics and qualitative analysis, we analyzed COVID-19–related tweets posted by medical professionals and examined their content. We used qualitative analysis to explore the collected data to identify relevant tweets and uncover important concepts about the pandemic using qualitative coding. Unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques and text analysis were used to identify topics and opinions.
Results: Data were collected from 119 medical professionals on Twitter about the coronavirus pandemic. A total of 10,096 English tweets were collected from the identified medical professionals between December 1, 2019 and April 1, 2020. We identified eight topics, namely actions and recommendations, fighting misinformation, information and knowledge, the health care system, symptoms and illness, immunity, testing, and infection and transmission. The tweets mainly focused on needed actions and recommendations (2827/10,096, 28%) to control the pandemic. Many tweets warned about misleading information (2019/10,096, 20%) that could lead to infection of more people with the virus. Other tweets discussed general knowledge and information (911/10,096, 9%) about the virus as well as concerns about the health care systems and workers (909/10,096, 9%). The remaining tweets discussed information about symptoms associated with COVID-19 (810/10,096, 8%), immunity (707/10,096, 7%), testing (605/10,096, 6%), and virus infection and transmission (503/10,096, 5%).
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that Twitter and social media platforms can help identify important and useful knowledge shared by medical professionals during a pandemic.

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18/06/2020 Original Paper
Distribution of Patients at Risk for Complications Related to COVID-19...

Distribution of Patients at Risk for Complications Related to COVID-19 in the United States: Model Development Study

JMIR

Authors
Renae Smith-Ray, Erin E Roberts, Devonee E Littleton, Tanya Singh, Thomas Sandberg, Michael Taitel


ABSTRACT
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread exponentially across the United States. Older adults with underlying health conditions are at an especially high risk of developing life-threatening complications if infected. Most intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and non-ICU hospitalizations have been among patients with at least one underlying health condition.
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a model to estimate the risk status of the patients of a nationwide pharmacy chain in the United States, and to identify the geographic distribution of patients who have the highest risk of severe COVID-19 complications.
Methods: A risk model was developed using a training test split approach to identify patients who are at high risk of developing serious complications from COVID-19. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) were identified from the Walgreens pharmacy electronic data warehouse. Patients were considered eligible to contribute data to the model if they had at least one prescription filled at a Walgreens location between October 27, 2019, and March 25, 2020. Risk parameters included age, whether the patient is being treated for a serious or chronic condition, and urban density classification. Parameters were differentially weighted based on their association with severe complications, as reported in earlier cases. An at-risk rate per 1000 people was calculated at the county level, and ArcMap was used to depict the rate of patients at high risk for severe complications from COVID-19. Real-time COVID-19 cases captured by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) were layered in the risk map to show where cases exist relative to the high-risk populations.
Results: Of the 30,100,826 adults included in this study, the average age is 50 years, 15% have at least one specialty medication, and the average patient has 2 to 3 comorbidities. Nearly 28% of patients have the greatest risk score, and an additional 34.64% of patients are considered high-risk, with scores ranging from 8 to 10. Age accounts for 53% of a patient’s total risk, followed by the number of comorbidities (29%); inferred chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, or diabetes (15%); and urban density classification (5%).
Conclusions: This risk model utilizes data from approximately 10% of the US population. Currently, this is the most comprehensive US model to estimate and depict the county-level prognosis of COVID-19 infection. This study shows that there are counties across the United States whose residents are at high risk of developing severe complications from COVID-19. Our county-level risk estimates may be used alongside other data sets to improve the accuracy of anticipated health care resource needs. The interactive map can also aid in proactive planning and preparations among employers that are deemed critical, such as pharmacies and grocery stores, to prevent the spread of COVID-19 within their facilities.

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18/06/2020 Special Report
Challenges of “Return to Work” in an Ongoing Pandemic

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Mark Barnes, Paul E. Sax


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17/06/2020 Original Paper
Mental Health and Behavior of College Students During the Early Phases...

Mental Health and Behavior of College Students During the Early Phases of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Longitudinal Smartphone and Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

JMIR

Authors
Jeremy F Huckins, Alex W daSilva, Weichen Wang, Elin Hedlund, Courtney Rogers, Subigya K Nepal, Jialing Wu, Mikio Obuchi, Eilis I Murphy, Meghan L Meyer, Dylan D Wagner, Paul E Holtzheimer, Andrew T Campbell



ABSTRACT
Background: The vast majority of people worldwide have been impacted by coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In addition to the millions of individuals who have been infected with the disease, billions of individuals have been asked or required by local and national governments to change their behavioral patterns. Previous research on epidemics or traumatic events suggests that this can lead to profound behavioral and mental health changes; however, researchers are rarely able to track these changes with frequent, near-real-time sampling or compare their findings to previous years of data for the same individuals.
Objective: By combining mobile phone sensing and self-reported mental health data among college students who have been participating in a longitudinal study for the past 2 years, we sought to answer two overarching questions. First, have the behaviors and mental health of the participants changed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic compared to previous time periods? Second, are these behavior and mental health changes associated with the relative news coverage of COVID-19 in the US media?
Methods: Behaviors such as the number of locations visited, distance traveled, duration of phone usage, number of phone unlocks, sleep duration, and sedentary time were measured using the StudentLife smartphone sensing app. Depression and anxiety were assessed using weekly self-reported ecological momentary assessments of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. The participants were 217 undergraduate students, with 178 (82.0%) students providing data during the Winter 2020 term. Differences in behaviors and self-reported mental health collected during the Winter 2020 term compared to previous terms in the same cohort were modeled using mixed linear models.
Results: During the first academic term impacted by COVID-19 (Winter 2020), individuals were more sedentary and reported increased anxiety and depression symptoms (P<.001) relative to previous academic terms and subsequent academic breaks. Interactions between the Winter 2020 term and the week of the academic term (linear and quadratic) were significant. In a mixed linear model, phone usage, number of locations visited, and week of the term were strongly associated with increased amount of COVID-19–related news. When mental health metrics (eg, depression and anxiety) were added to the previous measures (week of term, number of locations visited, and phone usage), both anxiety (P<.001) and depression (P=.03) were significantly associated with COVID-19–related news.
Conclusions: Compared with prior academic terms, individuals in the Winter 2020 term were more sedentary, anxious, and depressed. A wide variety of behaviors, including increased phone usage, decreased physical activity, and fewer locations visited, were associated with fluctuations in COVID-19 news reporting. While this large-scale shift in mental health and behavior is unsurprising, its characterization is particularly important to help guide the development of methods to reduce the impact of future catastrophic events on the mental health of the population.

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16/06/2020 Articles
Effectiveness of isolation, testing, contact tracing, and physical dis...

Effectiveness of isolation, testing, contact tracing, and physical distancing on reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different settings: a mathematical modelling study

THE LANCET

Authors
Adam J Kucharski, Petra Klepac, Andrew J K Conlan, Stephen M Kissler, Maria L Tang, Hannah Fry, Julia R Gog, W John Edmunds,



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15/06/2020 Research Letter
Effects of Sterilization With Hydrogen Peroxide and Chlorine Dioxide o...

Effects of Sterilization With Hydrogen Peroxide and Chlorine Dioxide on the Filtration Efficiency of N95, KN95, and Surgical Face Masks

JAMA

Authors
Changjie Cai, Evan L. Floyd


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14/06/2020 Articles
Evolution of Cancer Care in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

THE ONCOLOGIST

Authors
EricA. Coomes Humaid O. Al‐Shamsi Brandon M. Meyers Waleed Alhazzani Ahmad Alhuraiji Roy F. Chemaly Meshari Almuhanna Robert A. Wolff Nuhad K. Ibrahim Melvin L.K. Chua Sebastien J. Hotte Tarek Elfiki Giuseppe Curigliano Cathy Eng Axel Grothey Conghua Xie


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13/06/2020 Editorial
Medicine and medical science: Black lives must matter more

THE LANCET

Authors
THE LANCET


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11/06/2020 COMMENTARY
Hypothesis to explain the severe form of COVID-19 in Northern Italy

BMJ JOURNAL

Authors
Luca Cegolon, Jennifer Pichierri, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Sandro Cinquetti, Giovanni Sotgiu, Saverio Bellizzi, Giuseppe Pichierri


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11/06/2020 Viewpoint
The Dual Epidemics of COVID-19 and Influenza Vaccine Acceptance, Cover...

The Dual Epidemics of COVID-19 and Influenza Vaccine Acceptance, Coverage, and Mandates

JAMA

Authors
Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel A. Salmon


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08/06/2020 PERSPECTIVE
Anthony Fauci, MD, on COVID-19 Vaccines, Schools, and Larry Kramer

JAMA

Authors
JENNIFER ABBASI


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05/06/2020 Policy Form
Which interventions work best in a pandemic?

SCIENCE

Authors
Johannes Haushofer, C. Jessica E. Metcalf


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05/06/2020 Viewpoint
The Importance of Long-term Care Populations in Models of COVID-19

JAMA

Authors
Karl Pillemer, Lakshminarayanan Subramanian, Nathaniel Hupert


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05/06/2020 Editorial
Patents, economics, and pandemics

SCIENCE

Authors
Will Zerhouni, Gary J. Nabel, Elias Zerhouni


Read More »

05/06/2020 Insights
Caring for Women Who Are Planning a Pregnancy, Pregnant, or Postpartum...

Caring for Women Who Are Planning a Pregnancy, Pregnant, or Postpartum During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA

Authors
Sonja A. Rasmussen, Denise J. Jamieson


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04/06/2020 News
The coronavirus outbreak could make it quicker and easier to trial dru...

The coronavirus outbreak could make it quicker and easier to trial drugs

NATURE

Authors
Heidi Ledford

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04/06/2020 Comment
Talking to children about illness and death of a loved one during the ...

Talking to children about illness and death of a loved one during the COVID-19 pandemic

The Lancet

Authors
Elizabeth Rapa, Louise Dalton, Alan Stein

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03/06/2020 News
Will the pandemic permanently alter scientific publishing?

NATURE

Authors
Ewen Callaway

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01/06/2020 Articles
Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-...

Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The Lancet

Authors
Derek K Chu, Prof Elie A Akl, Stephanie Duda, Karla Solo, Sally Yaacoub,Prof Holger J Schünemann

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01/06/2020 Comment
Medical and gastroenterological education during the COVID-19 outbreak

NATURE

Authors
Brigida Barberio, Davide Massimi, Anna Dipace, Fabiana Zingone, Fabio Farinati, Edoardo V. Savarino


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01/06/2020 Editorial
Food security in uncertain times

THE LANCET

Authors
The Lancet Planetary Health


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29/05/2020 Letter
Lung ultrasound for pregnant women admitted to ICU for Covid-19 pneumo...

Lung ultrasound for pregnant women admitted to ICU for Covid-19 pneumonia

MINERVA MEDICA

Authors
Alberto GIANNINI, Alessandro MANTOVANI, Cesare VEZZOLI, Diego FRANCHINI, Paolo FINAZZI


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28/05/2020 Research Letter
Mental Health Outcomes Among Frontline and Second-Line Health Care Wor...

Mental Health Outcomes Among Frontline and Second-Line Health Care Workers During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Italy

JAMA

Authors
Rodolfo Rossi, Valentina Socci, Francesca Pacitti, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Antinisca Di Marco, Alberto Siracusano, Alessandro Rossi

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28/05/2020 Comment
How might the NHS protect the mental health of health-care workers aft...

How might the NHS protect the mental health of health-care workers after the COVID-19 crisis?

The Lancet

Authors
Neil Greenberg, Samantha K Brooks, Simon Wessely, Derek K Tracy

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28/05/2020 Articles
Coronavirus misinformation needs engagement

SPRINGER NATURE

Authors
Nature

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27/05/2020 Articles
Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients ...

Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients with Covid-19

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Eboni G. Price-Haywood, Jeffrey Burton, Daniel Fort, and Leonardo Seoane

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Many reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have highlighted age- and sex-related differences in health outcomes. More information is needed about racial and ethnic differences in outcomes from Covid-19.

METHODS In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from patients seen within an integrated-delivery health system (Ochsner Health) in Louisiana between March 1 and April 11, 2020, who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19) on qualitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. The Ochsner Health population is 31% black non-Hispanic and 65% white non-Hispanic. The primary outcomes were hospitalization and in-hospital death.

RESULTS A total of 3626 patients tested positive, of whom 145 were excluded (84 had missing data on race or ethnic group, 9 were Hispanic, and 52 were Asian or of another race or ethnic group). Of the 3481 Covid-19–positive patients included in our analyses, 60.0% were female, 70.4% were black non-Hispanic, and 29.6% were white non-Hispanic. Black patients had higher prevalences of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease than white patients. A total of 39.7% of Covid-19–positive patients (1382 patients) were hospitalized, 76.9% of whom were black. In multivariable analyses, black race, increasing age, a higher score on the Charlson Comorbidity Index (indicating a greater burden of illness), public insurance (Medicare or Medicaid), residence in a low-income area, and obesity were associated with increased odds of hospital admission. Among the 326 patients who died from Covid-19, 70.6% were black. In adjusted time-to-event analyses, variables that were associated with higher in-hospital mortality were increasing age and presentation with an elevated respiratory rate; elevated levels of venous lactate, creatinine, or procalcitonin; or low platelet or lymphocyte counts. However, black race was not independently associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio for death vs. white race, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.17).

CONCLUSIONS In a large cohort in Louisiana, 76.9% of the patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and 70.6% of those who died were black, whereas blacks comprise only 31% of the Ochsner Health population. Black race was not associated with higher in-hospital mortality than white race, after adjustment for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on admission.

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26/05/2020 PERSPECTIVE
“Is It Safe for Me to Go to Work?” Risk Stratification for Workers dur...

“Is It Safe for Me to Go to Work?” Risk Stratification for Workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

Authors
Marc R. Larochelle

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26/05/2020 Comment
The Italian NHS: What Lessons to Draw from COVID‐19?

SPRINGER LINK

Authors
Livio Garattini, Michele Zanetti, Nicholas Freemantle

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25/05/2020 Correspondence
Rethinking the role of the school after COVID-19

The Lancet

Authors
Annamaria Colao, Prisco Piscitelli, Manuela Pulimeno, Salvatore Colazzo, Alessandro Miani, Stefania Giannini

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23/05/2020 World Report
England and Wales see 20000 excess deaths in care homes

The Lancet

Authors
Talha Burki

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22/05/2020 Policy Forum
Ethics of controlled human infection to address COVID-19

SCIENCE

Authors
Seema K. Shah, Franklin G. Miller, Thomas C. Darton, Devan Duenas, Claudia Emerson, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Nancy S. Jecker, Dorcas Kamuya, Melissa Kapulu, Jonathan Kimmelman, Douglas MacKay, Matthew J. Memoli, Sean C. Murphy, Ricardo Palacios, Thomas L. Richie, Meta Roestenberg, Abha Saxena, Katherine Saylor, Michael J. Selgelid, Vina Vaswani, Annette Rid

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22/05/2020 Editorial
Time for a culture change: understanding and reducing risk, morbidity ...

Time for a culture change: understanding and reducing risk, morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in those of black and minority ethnicity

BRITISH JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE

Authors
Iqbal Singh,Kailash Chand,Arun Singh,Kondal R Kandadi

ABSTRACT Following a number of epidemics in the 21st century, including Ebola and Middle East respiratory syndrome, the SARS-COV-2 virus, causing COVID-19 disease, was declared a pandemic health emergency of international concern in January 2020.The SARS-COV-2 virus has had a devastating impact, with over 35 000 deaths in the UK across all sectors as of 18 May (hospitals, care homes, hospices and in the community) (Department of Health and Social Care and Public Health England, 2020). In the UK there has been increasing concern regarding the disproportionate impact that COVID-19 is having on black and minority ethnic communities. The Health Service Journal (Cook et al, 2020) identified that out of 119 NHS staff who had died from COVID-19, 64 were from ethnic minority backgrounds. People from ethnic minorities account for 14% of the population but have accounted for 34% of COVID-19-related intensive care unit admissions as of 24 April 2020 (Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, 2020). Black men are 4.2 and black women 4.3 times are more likely to die from a COVID-19-related death than men and women of white ethnicity (Office for National Statistics, 2020). Men in the Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic group were 1.8 times more likely to have a COVID-19-related death than white males when age and other sociodemographic and health characteristics were taken into account (Office for National Statistics, 2020). This difference in the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 between ethnic groups is only partly accounted for by socioeconomic disadvantage and other circumstances; the remaining gap has not yet been explained (Docherty et al, 2020; Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, 2020; Office for National Statistics, 2020).

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22/05/2020 Perspectives
Compassion in a time of COVID-19

The Lancet

Authors
Sandro Galea

Read More »

22/05/2020 Perspectives
A history of the medical mask and the rise of throwaway culture

The Lancet

Authors
Bruno J Strasser, Thomas Schlich

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22/05/2020 Viewpoint
Nursing Home Care in Crisis in the Wake of COVID-19

JAMA

Authors
David C. Grabowski, Vincent Mor

Read More »

20/05/2020 Articles
Individual quarantine versus active monitoring of contacts for the mit...

Individual quarantine versus active monitoring of contacts for the mitigation of COVID-19...

The Lancet

Authors
Corey M Peak, Rebecca Kahn, Yonatan H Grad, Lauren M Childs, Ruoran Li, Prof Marc Lipsitch, Caroline O Buckee

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19/05/2020 Articles
Back to school: Safe for children with underlying medical conditions

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GENERAL PRACTICE

Authors
MIKE STARR

Read More »

19/05/2020 Editorial
Tackle coronavirus in vulnerable communities

NATURE

Authors
Baggett, T. P., Keyes, H., Sporn, N. & Gaeta

Read More »

18/05/2020 Perspectives
Elective procedures for prostate cancer in the time of Covid-19: a mul...

Elective procedures for prostate cancer in the time of Covid-19: a multidisciplinary team experience

PROSTATE CANCER

Authors
Alessandro Sciarra, Stefano Salciccia, Martina Maggi, Francesco Del Giudice, Gian Maria Busetto, Daniela Musio, Antonio Ciardi, Carlo Catalano, Enrico Cortesi, Valeria Panebianco

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared pandemic since March 2020. In Europe, Italy has been the first nation affected by this infection. In this paper we report anamnestic data, clinical features and therapeutic management of two lung transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Both patients were in good clinical conditions prior to the infection and were on immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Whilst mycophenolate mofetil was withdrawn in both cases, CNI were suspended only in the second patient. The first patient always maintained excellent oxygen saturation throughout hospitalization with no need for additional oxygen therapy. He was discharged with a satisfactory pulmonary function and a complete resolution of radiological and clinical findings. However, at discharge SARS-CoV-2 RNA could still be detected in the nasopharyngeal swab and in the stools. The second patient required mechanical ventilation, had a progressive deterioration of his clinical conditions and had a fatal outcome. Further insight into SARS-CoV-2 infection is eagerly awaited to improve the outcome transplant recipients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia.

Read More »

18/05/2020 Comment
COVID-19 and the impact of social determinants of health

The Lancet

Authors
Elissa M Abrams, Stanley J Szefler

Read More »

18/05/2020 Articles
Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe ...

Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections...

The Lancet

Authors
Jonathan P Rogers, Edward Chesney, Dominic Oliver, Thomas A Pollak, Prof Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Michael S Zandi, Glyn Lewis, Anthony S David

Read More »

16/05/2020 Editorial
Reviving the US CDC

The Lancet

Authors
The Lancet

Read More »

16/05/2020 Articles
Lessons Learned from COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy

BJBMS

Authors
Antonio Minni, Massimo Ralli, Francesca Candelori, Fabrizio Cialente, Lucia Ercoli, Claudio Parlapiano, Antonio Greco, Marco de Vincentiis

ABSTRACT

The HERe2cure project, which involved a group of breast cancer experts, members of multidisciplinary tumor boards from healthcare institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was initiated with the aim of defining an optimal approach to the diagnosis and treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer. After individual multidisciplinary consensus meetings were held in all oncology centers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a final consensus meeting was held in order to reconcile the final conclusions discussed in individual meetings. Guidelines were adopted by consensus, based on the presentations and suggestions of experts, which were first discussed in a panel discussion and then agreed electronically between all the authors mentioned. The conclusions of the panel discussion represent the consensus of experts in the field of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objectives of the guidelines include the standardization, harmonization and optimization of the procedures for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, all of which should lead to an improvement in the quality of health care of mentioned patients. The initial treatment plan for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer must be made by a multidisciplinary tumor board comprised of at least: a medical oncologist, a pathologist, a radiologist, a surgeon, and a radiation oncologist/radiotherapist.

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15/05/2020 Features
PPE: what now for the global supply chain?

THE BMJ

Authors
Jane Feinmann

Read More »

15/05/2020 Articles
Medical Ethics During a Public Health Crisis: COVID-19

JB&JS

Authors
White, Peter B., Cohn, Randy, Humbyrd, Casey Jo

Read More »

15/05/2020 Editorial
Coronavirus Disease 2019 Triage Teams: Death by Numbers

CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Authors
Zivot, Joel

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15/05/2020 Original Article
The Anxiety Status of Chinese Medical Workers During the Epidemic of C...

The Anxiety Status of Chinese Medical Workers During the Epidemic of COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis

PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION

Authors
Rong Pan, Liqing Zhang, Jiyang Pan

Objective To analysis the anxiety status of Chinese medical workers during the epidemic of COVID-19 by meta-analysis method.

Methods CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar and other databases were searched to collect literature on the anxiety status of Chinese medical workers during the epidemic of COVID-19. The retrieval time is from the database construction to 11/03/2020. Meta-analysis was performed on the included articles by using Stata 16.0 software.

Results A total of 7 articles were included, with a total sample size of 7,741 people. Meta-analysis using the random effects model showed that the anxiety score of Chinese medical during the epidemic of COVID-19 was significantly higher than that of the national norm in each study, the difference was statistically significant [SMD (95% CI)=1.145 (0.705–1.584), p<0.001].

Conclusion The anxiety level of Chinese medical workers has increased significantly during the epidemic of COVID-19.

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14/05/2020 News
Dogs caught coronavirus from their owners, genetic analysis suggests

NATURE

Authors
Smriti Mallapaty

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14/05/2020 Comment
Global coordination on cross-border travel and trade measures crucial ...

Global coordination on cross-border travel and trade measures crucial to COVID-19 response

The Lancet

Authors
Kelley Lee, Catherine Z Worsnop, Karen A Grépin, Adam Kamradt-Scott

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14/05/2020 Editor's choice
Covid-19: Testing testing

THE BMJ

Authors
Fiona Godlee

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14/05/2020 Correspondence
Love at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic: preliminary results of an o...

Love at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic: preliminary results of an online survey...

IJIR

Authors
Andrea Cocci, Daniel Giunti, Camilla Tonioni, Giovanni Cacciamani, Riccardo Tellini, Gaia Polloni, Gianmartin Cito, Fabrizio Presicce, Marina Di Mauro, Andrea Minervini, Sebastiano Cimino, Giorgio Ivan Russo

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14/05/2020 Articles
Embed nature in strategies to reboot economies

NATURE

NATURE

Authors:
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14/05/2020 Articles
Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2

NATURE

Authors
Thomas H. C. Sit, Christopher J. Brackman, Sin Ming Ip, Karina W. S. Tam, Pierra Y. T. Law, Esther M. W. To, Veronica Y. T. Yu, Leslie D. Sims, Dominic N. C. Tsang, Daniel K. W. Chu, Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera, Leo L. M. Poon, Malik Peiris

ABSTRACT SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan in December 2019 and caused the pandemic respiratory disease, COVID-191,2. In 2003, the closely related SARS-CoV had been detected in domestic cats and a dog3. However, little is known about the susceptibility of domestic pet mammals to SARS-CoV-2. Two out of fifteen dogs from households with confirmed human cases of COVID-19 in Hong Kong SAR were found to be infected using quantitative RT–PCR, serology, sequencing the viral genome, and in one dog, virus isolation. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in a 17-year-old neutered male Pomeranian from five nasal swabs collected over a 13-day period. A 2.5-year-old male German Shepherd dog had SARS CoV-2 RNA on two occasions and virus was isolated from nasal and oral swabs. Both dogs had antibody responses detected using plaque reduction neutralization assays. Viral genetic sequences of viruses from the two dogs were identical to the virus detected in the respective human cases. The animals remained asymptomatic during quarantine. The evidence suggests that these are instances of human-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear whether infected dogs can transmit the virus to other animals or back to humans.

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13/05/2020 Viewpoint
Helen Salisbury: GPs still have no access to coronavirus testing

The BMJ

Authors
Helen Salisbury

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13/05/2020 Viewpoint
A Game Plan for the Resumption of Sport and Exercise After Coronavirus...

A Game Plan for the Resumption of Sport and Exercise After Coronavirus Disease 2019...

JAMA

Authors
Dermot Phelan, Jonathan H. Kim, Eugene H. Chung

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13/05/2020 Articles
The online competition between pro- and anti-vaccination views

NATURE

Authors
Neil F. Johnson, Nicolas Velásquez, Nicholas Johnson Restrepo, Rhys Leahy, Nicholas Gabriel, Sara El Oud, Minzhang Zheng, Pedro Manrique, Stefan Wuchty, Yonatan Lupu

ABSTRACT

Distrust in scientific expertise1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 is dangerous. Opposition to vaccination with a future vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, for example, could amplify outbreaks2,3,4, as happened for measles in 20195,6. Homemade remedies7,8 and falsehoods are being shared widely on the Internet, as well as dismissals of expert advice9,10,11. There is a lack of understanding about how this distrust evolves at the system level13,14. Here we provide a map of the contention surrounding vaccines that has emerged from the global pool of around three billion Facebook users. Its core reveals a multi-sided landscape of unprecedented intricacy that involves nearly 100 million individuals partitioned into highly dynamic, interconnected clusters across cities, countries, continents and languages. Although smaller in overall size, anti-vaccination clusters manage to become highly entangled with undecided clusters in the main online network, whereas pro-vaccination clusters are more peripheral. Our theoretical framework reproduces the recent explosive growth in anti-vaccination views, and predicts that these views will dominate in a decade. Insights provided by this framework can inform new policies and approaches to interrupt this shift to negative views. Our results challenge the conventional thinking about undecided individuals in issues of contention surrounding health, shed light on other issues of contention such as climate change11, and highlight the key role of network cluster dynamics in multi-species ecologies15.

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13/05/2020 Perspective
Preventing a Parallel Pandemic — A National Strategy to Protect Clinic...

Preventing a Parallel Pandemic — A National Strategy to Protect Clinicians’ Well-Being

THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDIINE

Authors
Victor J. Dzau, Darrell Kirch, Thomas Nasca

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13/05/2020 Correspondence
Consider pregnancy in COVID-19 therapeutic drug and vaccine trials

The Lancet

Authors
Clare L Whitehead, Susan P Walker

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13/05/2020 View and Review
David Oliver: Covid-19 highlights the need for effective government co...

David Oliver: Covid-19 highlights the need for effective government communications

THE BMJ

Authors
David Oliver

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13/05/2020 Viewpoint
School Closure During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic...

School Closure During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic...

JAMA

Authors
Susanna Esposito, Nicola Principi

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13/05/2020 Perspectives
Summary of international recommendations in 23 languages for patients ...

Summary of international recommendations in 23 languages for patients with cancer

The Lancet

Authors
Davide Mauri, Konstantinos Kamposioras,Maria Tolia, Filippo Alongi,Dimitrios Tzachanis

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12/05/2020 Articles
Early estimates of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on ma...

Early estimates of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal...

The Lancet

Authors
Timothy Roberton, Emily D Carter, Victoria B Chou, Angela R Stegmuller, Bianca D Jackson, Yvonne Tam, Talata Sawadogo-Lewis, Neff Walker

ABSTRACT Background While the COVID-19 pandemic will increase mortality due to the virus, it is also likely to increase mortality indirectly. In this study, we estimate the additional maternal and under-5 child deaths resulting from the potential disruption of health systems and decreased access to food. Methods We modelled three scenarios in which the coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions is reduced by 9·8–51·9% and the prevalence of wasting is increased by 10–50%. Although our scenarios are hypothetical, we sought to reflect real-world possibilities, given emerging reports of the supply-side and demand-side effects of the pandemic. We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate the additional maternal and under-5 child deaths under each scenario, in 118 low-income and middle-income countries. We estimated additional deaths for a single month and extrapolated for 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Findings Our least severe scenario (coverage reductions of 9·8–18·5% and wasting increase of 10%) over 6 months would result in 253 500 additional child deaths and 12 200 additional maternal deaths. Our most severe scenario (coverage reductions of 39·3–51·9% and wasting increase of 50%) over 6 months would result in 1 157 000 additional child deaths and 56 700 additional maternal deaths. These additional deaths would represent an increase of 9·8–44·7% in under-5 child deaths per month, and an 8·3–38·6% increase in maternal deaths per month, across the 118 countries. Across our three scenarios, the reduced coverage of four childbirth interventions (parenteral administration of uterotonics, antibiotics, and anticonvulsants, and clean birth environments) would account for approximately 60% of additional maternal deaths. The increase in wasting prevalence would account for 18–23% of additional child deaths and reduced coverage of antibiotics for pneumonia and neonatal sepsis and of oral rehydration solution for diarrhoea would together account for around 41% of additional child deaths. Interpretation Our estimates are based on tentative assumptions and represent a wide range of outcomes. Nonetheless, they show that, if routine health care is disrupted and access to food is decreased (as a result of unavoidable shocks, health system collapse, or intentional choices made in responding to the pandemic), the increase in child and maternal deaths will be devastating. We hope these numbers add context as policy makers establish guidelines and allocate resources in the days and months to come.

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11/05/2020 Research Article
Screening of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 highlights the role of ...

Screening of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 highlights the role of asymptomatic carriage in COVID-19 transmission

eLife

Authors
Lucy Rivett, Sushmita Sridhar, Dominic Sparkes, Matthew Routledge, Nick K Jones, Sally Forrest, Jamie Young, Joana Pereira-Dias, William L Hamilton, Mark Ferris, M Estee Torok, Luke Meredith, The CITIID-NIHR COVID-19 BioResource Collaboration, Martin D Curran, Stewart Fuller, Afzal Chaudhry, Ashley Shaw, Richard J Samworth, John R Bradley, Gordon Dougan, Kenneth G C Smith, Paul J Lehner, Nicholas J Matheson, Giles Wright, Ian G Goodfellow, Stephen Baker, Michael P Weekes

ABSTRACT Significant differences exist in the availability of healthcare worker (HCW) SARS-CoV-2 testing between countries, and existing programmes focus on screening symptomatic rather than asymptomatic staff. Over a 3-week period (April 2020), 1,032 asymptomatic HCWs were screened for SARS-CoV-2 in a large UK teaching hospital. Symptomatic staff and symptomat